Pleosporales » Phaeosphaeriaceae » Paraphoma

Paraphoma radicina

Paraphoma radicina (McAlpine) Morgan-Jones & J.F. White, Mycotaxon 18(1): 60 (1983).

Pyrenochaeta radicina McAlpine, Fungus Diseases of stone-fruit trees in Australia: 127 (1902).

            Index Fungorum number: IF 109141; Facesoffungi number: FoF 11645, Fig. 1

Description: see De Gruyter et al. (2010, 2013); Quaedvlieg et al. (2013); Crous et al. (2017b); Moslemi et al. (2018); Gomzhina et al. (2020).

Material examined: see De Gruyter et al. (2010, 2013); Quaedvlieg et al. (2013); Crous et al. (2017b); Moslemi et al. (2018); Gomzhina et al. (2020).

Figure. 1. Paraphoma spp. (re-drawn from Fig. 41 in Marin-Felix et al., 2019) a, b P. dioscoreae (ex-type CBS 135100). a, b Condiogenous cells. c, d P. fimeti (ex-neotype CBS 170.70). c, d Conidiogenous cells. e P. dioscoreae (ex-type CBS 135100). e Conidia. f P. fimeti (ex-neotype CBS 170.70) f Conidia. g Chlamydospores of P. vinacea (ex-type BRIP 63684). Scale bars: a–g = 10 μm.

Importance and role

Importance of genus to ecosystem

Species of Paraphoma are saprobic and helps in decomposition of organic matter in the ecosystem. Some Paraphoma taxa are fungal pathogens including primary and secondary pathogens of agricultural crops (Moslemi et al., 2016).


Industrial relevance and applications

Paraphoma is useful for pharmaceutical and medical industry as it produces wide range of compounds for example, monoolein, an important lipid involved in drug delivery, emulsion stabilization and protein crystallization (Kulkarni et al., 2011; Esposito et al., 2018).


Quarantine significance

Paraphoma is of quarantine importance as it causes several diseases on some host plants for example, Paraphoma can cause root rot of B. chinense (Cao et al., 2019).


Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications

Putten (1979) reported that Paraphoma radicina produced mandelic acid which is a monocarboxylic acid. El-Elimat et al. (2014) reported Isochromenones, isobenzofuranone, and tetrahydronaphthalenes produced by Paraphoma radicina, isolated from a freshwater habitat. Koitabashi et al. (2016) investigated the diodegradable plastic-degrading activity of several species of Paraphoma as the latter produce Cutinase. Sato et al. (2017) studied the degradation profiles of biodegradable plastic films by biodegradable plastic-degrading enzymes from Paraphoma sp. B47-9. Poluektova et al. (2018) reported Curvulin and Phaeosphaeride A from Paraphoma sp. VIZR 1.46 from Cirsium arvense used as a potential herbicide. Teimoori-Boghsani et al. (2020) reported that Paraphoma radicina is a producer of cryptotanshinone, a key bioactive compound of Sabrotanoides. Xu et al. (2021) reported the Isocoumarin Analogues from the Marine-Derived Fungus Paraphoma sp.


Diversity of the genus

Paraphoma comprises ten species known on wide range of host such as Allium cepa (Amaryllidaceae), Atractylodes japonica (Asteraceae), Chamaedaphne calyculata (Ericaceae), Chrysanthemum morifolium (Asteraceae), Heterodera glycines (Heteroderidae), Lycopersicum esculentum (Solanaceae), Malus sylvestris (Rosaceae), Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Ericaceae), Prunus cerasus (Rosaceae), Solanum lycopersicum (Solanaceae), Vitis sp. (Vitaceae) amongst others. Paraphoma has wide geographical distribution such as Australia, China, Germany, Illinois, United Kingdom, Netherlands, North Carolina, Poland, Senegal, United States amongst others. Paraphoma may comprise many more species that awaits discovery.


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