Pleosporales » Phaeosphaeriaceae


Paraphoma Morgan-Jones & J.F. White, Mycotaxon 18(1): 58 (1983).

Index Fungorum number: IF 25835; Facesoffungi number: FoF 00259, 10 morphological species (Species Fungorum, 2022), 10 species with molecular data.

Endophytic or pathogenic on host. Sexual morph: Unknown. Asexual morph: Mycelium abundant, composed of branched, septate, suhyaline to pale brown, smooth hyphae. Pycnidia solitary or aggregated, superficial or semi-immersed in agar, brown to dark-brown, globose to subglobose with a short neck, uniloculate, setose, ostiole singular, circular. Wall of cells and an inner layer, 4-5 cells thick, of subhyaline to pale brown flexuous, acuminate, smooth or verrucose, thick-walled, septate; apices acuminate, subacute to acute, pale brown to subhyaline. Conidiogenous cells monophialidic, formed from the inner cells of the pycnidial wall. Conidia enteroblastic, ellipsoid, aseptate, hyaline, smooth, guttulate (adapted from Morgan-Jones & White 1983).


Type species: Paraphoma radicina (McAlpine) Morgan-Jones & J.F. White


Notes: Paraphoma is characterised by abundant mycelium comprising suhyaline to pale brown, smooth hyphae, globose to subglobose pycnidia, monophialidic conidiogenous cells and enteroblastic, ellipsoid, aseptate, hyaline, smooth, guttulate conidia. In the phylogenetic analysis of de Gruyter et al. (2013), the type species Paraphoma radicina formed a distinct lineage outside Didymellaceae and hence was excluded from Phoma. In the analysis of Marin-Felix et al. (2019) based on LSU and SSU, P. radicina formed a lineage in Phaeosphaeriaceae while other species of Paraphoma clustered in Cucurbitariaceae and Coniothyriaceae. Paraphoma resembles Peyronellaea, Pyrenochaeta and Pleurophoma in having setose pycnidial conidiomata and dictyochlamydospores hence, morphological criteria are not useful in delineating Paraphoma species. Molecular markers available for Paraphoma are ITS, LSU, SSU, Actin, BTUB, RPB2 and TEF-1. Paraphoma is a distinct and well-defined genus in Phaeosphaeriaceae.


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