Paraphoma Morgan-Jones & J.F. White, Mycotaxon 18(1): 58 (1983).
Endophytic or pathogenic on host. Asexual morph: Mycelium abundant, composed of branched, septate, suhyaline to pale brown, smooth hyphae. Pycnidia solitary or aggregated, superficial or semi-immersed in agar, brown to dark-brown, globose to subglobose with a short neck, uniloculate, setose, ostiole singular, circular. Wall of cells and an inner layer, 4-5 cells thick, of subhyaline to pale brown flexuous, acuminate, smooth or verrucose, thick-walled, septate; apices acuminate, subacute to acute, pale brown to subhyaline. Conidiogenous cells monophialidic, formed from the inner cells of the pycnidial wall. Conidia enteroblastic, ellipsoid, aseptate, hyaline, smooth, guttulate. Sexual morph: Unknown (Adapted from Morgan-Jones & White, 1983).
Type species: Paraphoma radicina (McAlpine) Morgan-Jones & J.F. White
Notes: Paraphoma was introduced by Morgan-Jones and White (1983) with P. radicina as type species. Paraphoma is characterized by abundant mycelium comprising suhyaline to pale brown, smooth hyphae, globose to subglobose pycnidia, monophialidic conidiogenous cells and enteroblastic, ellipsoid, aseptate, hyaline, smooth, guttulate conidia. In the phylogenetic analysis of de Gruyter et al. (2013), the type species of Paraphoma, P. radicina formed a distinct lineage outside Didymellaceae and hence was excluded from Phoma. In the analysis of Marin et al. (2019) based on LSU and SSU, Paraphoma radicina formed a lineage in Phaeosphaeriaceae while other species of Paraphoma clustered in Cucurbitariaceae and Coniothyriaceae. Paraphoma resembles Peyronellaea, Pyrenochaeta and Pleurophoma in having setose pycnidial conidiomata and dictyochlamydospores hence, morphological criterion is not useful in delineating Paraphoma species. Taxa of Paraphoma can be delineated based on ITS, LSU, RPB2, TEF-1 and BTUB sequence data. Paraphoma is a distinct and well-defined genus in Phaeosphaeriaceae.