Pleosporales » Massarinaceae » Stagonospora

Stagonospora paludosa

Stagonospora paludosa (Sacc. & Speg.) Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 3: 453 (1884).

Hendersonia paludosa Sacc. & Speg., Michelia 1(no. 3): 353 (1878).

            Index Fungorum number: IF 202117; Facesoffungi number: FoF 11600, Fig. 1

Description: see Quaedvlieg et al. (2013).

Material examined: see Quaedvlieg et al. (2013).

Fig. 1 Stagonospora paludosa (CBS 135088, holotype; redrawn from Quaedvlieg et al. 2013). a Conidia. b Conidiogenous cells. Scale bars: a, b = 10 μm.

Importance and distribution

Quarantine significance

Stagonospora cirsii is a potential mycoherbicide of Cirsium arvense (Evidente et al. 2008). Stagonolides J and K and Stagochromene A, Chromene-4,5-dione isolated from Stagonospora cirsii S-47 is suggested for the biocontrol of Sonchus arvensis (Dalinova et al. 2019).


Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications

Stagonospora produces a wide range of compounds such as 6-methylsalicylic acid and (+)-epoxydon (Venkatasubbaiah et al. 1987), pramanicin, a modified acyltetramic acid (Bailey et al. 2000), stagonolide, phytotoxic nonenolide from Stagonospora cirsii (Yuzikhin et al. 2007), Stagonolides B-F, nonenolides (Evidente et al. 2008), fungal metabolites cercosporin, elsinochrome A and leptosphaerodione (Ahonsi et al. 2015), Trichopeptides A and B, trichocyclodipeptides A–C, peptides from the fungus Stagonospora trichophoricola (Chen et al. 2017), Chromene-4,5-dione, Stagochromene A, Stagonolides J and K (Dalinova et al. 2019).


There are 530 records of Stagonospora epithets in Index Fungorum (2022), but most of them have been transferred to other genera such as Allelochaeta, Ascochyta, Collonaemella, Didymella, Diplodina, Keissleriomyces, Kellermania, Kirramyces, Leptosphaeria, Longiseptatispora, Marssonina, Neosetophoma, Neottiosporina, Parastagonospora, Phomopsis, Placosphaerina, Septoria and Setoseptoria. Stagonospora consists of 289 species known on a wide range of hosts such as Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cyperaceae, Fabaceae, Juncaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae and Simaroubaceae. Stagonospora has been reported from Asia (Armenia, India, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Russian), Australia (New South Wales), Europe (Albania, Georgia, Kerguelen Islands), North America (Canada (Manitoba)) and the United States (North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Wisconsin). DNA sequence data is essential to establish new species of Stagonospora because the genus is easily confused with other genera and the taxonomic placement is still complex.



Ahonsi M, Maurhofer M, Boss D, Défago G. 2005 – Relationship between aggressiveness of Stagonospora sp. isolates on field and hedge bindweeds, and in vitro production of fungal metabolites cercosporin, elsinochrome A and leptosphaerodione. European Journal of Plant Pathology 111, 203–215.

Bailey A, Mueller E, Bowyer P. 2000 – Ornithine Decarboxylase of Stagonospora (Septoria) nodorum is Required for Virulence towards Wheat. The Journal of biological chemistry 275, 14242–14247.

Chen T, Lam CK, Chen WD, Chen XH et al. 2017 – NMR screening approach for discovery of new 6-methylpyridinone derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Leptosphaerulina sp. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 10, 288‒294.

Dalinova A, Dubovik V, Chisty L, Kochura D et al. 2019 – Stagonolides J and K and Stagochromene A, Two New Natural Substituted Nonenolides and a New Disubstituted Chromene-4,5-dione Isolated from Stagonospora cirsii S-47 Proposed for the Biocontrol of Sonchus arvensis. Journal of Agricultural and Food chemistry 67, 13040–13050.

Dalinova AA, Dubovik V, Berestetskiy A. 2020 – Effect of Adjuvants on Herbicidal Activity and Selectivity of Three Phytotoxins Produced by the Fungus, Stagonospora cirsii. Plants 9, 1621.

Evidente A, Cimmino A, Berestetskiy A, Andolfi A, Motta A. 2008 – Stagonolides G-I and Modiolide A, Nonenolides Produced by Stagonospora cirsii, a Potential Mycoherbicide for Cirsium arvense. Journal of natural products 71, 1897–1901.

Quaedvlieg W, Verkley GJM, Shin HD, Barreto RW et al. 2013 – Sizing up Septoria. Studies in Mycology 75, 307–390.

Venkatasubbaiah P, Kohmoto K, Otani H, Hamasaki T, Nakajima H, Hokama K. 1987 – two phytotoxins from Stagonospora sacchari causing leaf scorch of sugarcane. Japanese Journal of Phytopathology 53, 3, 335–344.

Yuzikhin O, Mitina G, Berestetskiy A. 2007 – Herbicidal Potential of Stagonolide, a New Phytotoxic Nonenolide from Stagonospora cirsii. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 55, 7707–7711.


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