Capnodiales » Dissoconiaceae » Dissoconium

Dissoconium aciculare

Dissoconium aciculare de Hoog, Oorschot & Hijwegen, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet., Ser. C, Biol. Med. Sci. 86(2): 198 (1983).

           Index Fungorum number: IF 107937; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06642,    Fig. 1

Description: see Crous et al. (2004, 2009).

Material considered: see Crous et al. (2004, 2009).

Fig. 1 Mycelium, conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and conidia of Dissoconium aciculare (redrawn from Plate 159B in Seifert et al. 2011).

Importance and distribution

Dissoconium species are mostly associated with leaf spots. Several Dissoconium species cause the disease complex commonly known as sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) on the surface of fruit (e.g. apple (Rosaceae), pawpaw (Annonaceae), persimmon (Ebenaceae) (Batzer et al. 2005; Hemnani et al. 2008). They are commensalists and often occur in the asexual state on lesions associated with pathogenic species of Capnodiales (Crous et al. 2009). There is evidence that Dissoconium species parasitize Erysiphales and other fungi in the phyllosphere (de Hoog et al. 1991). Dissoconium apiculatum is an active mycoparasite on powdery mildews (Hijwegen and Buchenauer 1984). Some Dissoconium species exhibit in vitro antifungal activity against S. sclerotiorum (Gama et al. 2018). There are ten Dissoconium records in Index Fungorum (2022), but some species have been transferred to Ramichloridium and Uwebraunia. Dissoconium comprises five species known on several host plants such as Annonaceae, Cupressaceae, Ebenaceae, Erysiphaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Nelumbonaceae, Pinaceae, Proteaceae, Rosaceae. Dissoconium has a worldwide distribution including Africa (Canary Islands, Zambia), Asia (China, Taiwan, South Korea), Australia, Europe (Germany, Italy, Netherlands), New Zealand, South Africa, South America (Ecuador) and the United States (Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, Wisconsin).


Industrial relevance and applications

Dissoconium causes leaf diseases of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), which is the main tree planted for pulp and paper production in South America (Brazil). High susceptibility of E. globulus to infection by Dissoconium causes economic loss for the pulp producing industry in South America (Brazil) (Teodoro et al. 2012).


Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications

Dissoconium produces important chemical, enzymes and toxins which contribute to the mycoparasitic nature of the fungus (Gama et al. 2018). Further studies are needed to identify those chemicals.



Batzer JC, Gleason ML, Harrington TC, Tiffany LH. 2005 – Expansion of the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apples based on analysis of ribosomal DNA gene sequences and morphology. Mycologia 97, 1268 –1286.

Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Mansilla JP, Hunter GC, Wingfield MJ. 2004 Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. Studies in Mycology 50, 195–214.

Crous PW, Schoch CL, Hyde KD, Wood AR et al. 2009 – Phylogenetic lineages in the Capnodiales. Studies in Mycology 64, 17–47.

Gama D, Santos ÍA, Abreu LM, Medeiros FH, Duarte WF, Cardoso PG. 2020 – Endophytic fungi from Brachiaria grasses in Brazil and preliminary screening of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum antagonists. Scientia Agricola 77.

Hemnani K, Malley PJO, Tanović B, Batzer JC, Gleason ML. 2008 – First report of seven species of sooty blotch and flyspeck on Asimina triloba in Iowa. Plant Disease 92, 1366.

Hijwegen T, Buchenauer H. 1984 – Isolation and identification of hyperparasitic fungi associated with Erysiphaceae. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 90, 79–83.

Hoog GS de, Hijwegen T, Batenburg-van der Vegte WH. 1991 – A new species of Dissoconium. Mycological Research 95, 679–682.

Li HY, Sun GY, Zhai XR, Batzer JC et al. 2012 – Dissoconiaceae associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck on fruits in China and the United States. Persoonia 28, 113–125.

Seifert K, Morgan-Jones G, Gams W, Kendrick B. 2011 – The genera of hyphomycetes. CBS Biodiversity Series no. 9: 1–997. CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, Netherlands.


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