Protoventuria Berl. & Sacc., Atti Soc. Veneto-Trent. Sci. Nat. 10(1): 174 (1887).
Index Fungorum number: IF 4399; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06363, 19 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 4 species with molecular data.
Hypostroma in leaf tissue between cuticle and epidermis consisting of laterally flattened, dark brown hyphae, producing brown to blackish spots, with sparse, superficial, narrow brown hyphae. Sexual morph: Ascomata globose to ovoid, apex rounded, superficial, mostly epiphyllous, scattered, outer layer dark brown, textura globulosa, setose over sides and around apical pore, blackish brown, apex pointed, base slightly inflated. Asci pyriform to obpyriform, pseudoparaphyses numerous. Ascospores pale brown, verruculose, broadly elliptical to clavate, ends rounded, septate in middle, constricted, enveloped in a thick gelatinous sheath. Asexual morph: Colony developing from surface-sterilized leaf sections dark brown, slow growing. Pseudothecia forming on leaf surface and on agar in proximity to leaf tissue. Colonies on MA dark brown, with pale brown, cottony aerial hyphae in the center, aerial hyphae becoming sparse towards the margin and forming ascending spirals; submerged hyphae dark brown, mostly smooth-walled. Pseudothecia developing both superficially and in the agar (adapted from description of Protoventuria barriae in Carris and Poole 1993).
Type species: Protoventuria rosae De Not.
Notes: Protoventuria is characterised by globose to ovoid ascomata, pyriform to obpyriform asci, and pale brown, verruculose, broadly elliptical to clavate ascospores. Protoventuria rosae was previously known as Venturia rosae but was not congeneric with the type species of Venturia, V. inaequalis. Korf (1956) suggested that Protoventuria must be rejected as a superfluous name since Saccardo excluded V. dianthi and V. rosae from Venturia. Korf (1956) mentioned that the correct way was to retain Venturia with V. rosae as its type species and introduce a new genus for the "emended" genus Venturia sensu Saccardo. Müller and Menon (1955) provided an updated description of Protoventuria and a key to species. Barr (1968) mentioned that species in subgenus Venturioides of Gibbera are similar to members of Protoventuria in having superficial and intramatrical hyphae and it is very difficult to separate them. So far, no asexual morph has been reported for any species of Protoventuria. Protoventuria resembles Lasiostemma in having superficial ascomata but the latter has hyaline ascospores that becomes light yellowish brown or light dull brown while those of Protoventuria have green to olivaceous pigments. Carris and Poole (1993) introduced Protoventuria barriae from Vaccinium macrocarpon in North America. Several authors added new species to Protoventuria (Chlebicki 2009; Rossman et al. 2016). Zhang et al. (2011) incorporated four Protoventuria strains in their phylogenetic analysis, P. alpina (CBS 140.83), P. barriae (ATCC 90285), P. barriae (CBS 300.93) and P. major (CBS 114594) and confirmed placement of the genus in Venturiaceae. Shen et al. (2020) provided an updated account of Venturiales and showed placement of Protoventuria in Venturiaceae based on multigene analyses of ITS, LSU rDNA, tef1, tub2 and rpb2. Protoventuria is morphologically and phylogenetically a distinct genus in Venturiaceae. Molecular data is available for only three species, P. alpina (ITS, SSU, TEF-1), P. barriae (ATCC 90285, LSU), P. barriae (CBS 300.93, ITS, LSU, SSU, BTUB, RPB2, TEF-1) and P. major (LSU).
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