Pseudopyrenula Müll. Arg., Flora, Regensburg 66(16): 247 (1883).
Index Fungorum number: IF 4481; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08823, 20 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 4 species with molecular data.
Lichenized on host. Thallus ecorticate, whitish. Photobiont Trentepohlia. Sexual morph: Ascomata solitary, erumpent to prominent, black, hemisphaerical to wart-shaped or conical, carbonaceous, ostiolate, ostiole apical, rarely lateral. Involucrellum carbonized. Excipulum prosoplectenchymatous, brownish to carbonized. Hamathecium comprising paraphysoids, hyaline, straight, branched and anastomosing, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, clavate, short pedicellate, with a non-amyloid ocular chamber. Ascospores irregularly arranged to biseriate, fusiform ellipsoid, hyaline, 3(–5)-septate, astrothelioid with distinct distosepta and diamond-shaped lumina, smooth-walled, not constricted at the septa, often with a gelatinous sheath. Asexual morph: Pycnidia rare, immersed to erumpent, visible as black dots. Conidia aseptate, bacillar, hyaline. Chemistry: lichexanthone sometimes produced on thallus surface; hamathecium and/or ascospores sometimes with yellow anthraquinones (adapted from Aptroot and Lücking 2016).
Type species: Pseudopyrenula diluta (Fée) Müll. Arg.
Notes: Pseudopyrenula is characterised by solitary, erumpent to prominent, black, hemispherical to wart-shaped ascomata, prosoplectenchymatous exciple, clavate, short pedicellate asci and fusiform ellipsoid, hyaline, 3(–5)-septate ascospores. The asexual morph is rare with immersed to erumpent pycnidia, visible as black dots and aseptate, bacillar, hyaline conidia. Pseudopyrenula produces lichexanthone on the thallus and yellow anthraquinones in hamathecium or ascospores. Pseudopyrenula forms a monophyletic group distinct from similar genera such as Bogoriella, Constrictolumina, Dictyomeridium, Novomicrothelia and Polymeridium and is unique in Trypetheliaceae in having ecorticate thallus with astrothelioid ascospores. Several species of Pseudopyrenula have yellow oil in the ascospore lumina or the hamathecium. Pseudopyrenula is morphologically and phylogenetically a distinct genus in Trypetheliaceae. Molecular markers available for Pseudopyrenula include P. subnudata (LSU, mtSSU), P. subgregaria (LSU, RPB2, TEF-1, mtSSU), P. endoxanthoides (mtSSU) and P. diluta (LSU, mtSSU).
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