Dendryphion Wallr., Fl. crypt. Germ. (Norimbergae) 2: 300 (1833).
Index Fungorum number: IF 7952; Facesoffungi number: FoF 01741, 30 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 5 species with molecular data.
Colonies effuse, dark grey, olive, reddish brown or black, hairy or velvety. Mycelium immersed. Stroma when present immersed or partly superficial. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Conidiophores macronematous, usually branched at the apex forming a stipe and head; stipe straight or flexuous, usually stout, erect, brown to black, smooth or with the upper part verruculose; branches usually paler, smooth or verruculose. Conidiogenous cells monotretic or polytretic, usually integrated but occasionally discrete, terminal and intercalary on branches, sympodial, clavate, cylindrical or doliiform, cicatrized; scars usually large and dark. Conidia catenate or solitary, dry, acropleurogenous, simple or branched, cylindrical with rounded ends or obclavate, sometimes cheiroid, pale to mid brown or olivaceous brown, multi-septate, smooth or verrucose (Adapted from Ellis 1971).
Type species: Dendryphion comosum Wallr.
Notes: Dendryphion was introduced by Wallr (1833) with D. comosum as type species. Dendryphion is characterized by branched, septate, hyaline to pale brown hyphae, erect, branched, conidiophores forming a distinct stipe and conidiogenous apparatus. Siboe et al. (1999) provided a morphological key to species in Dendryphion. Inderbitzin et al. (2006) reported that Dendryphion is polyphyletic and established Brachycladium and Crivellea to accommodate members closely related to Alternaria (Woudenberg et al. 2013; Crous et al. 2014). Crous et al. (2014) introduced Dendryphion europaeum and reported the species to be closely related to Torula based on ITS sequence data. Based on phylogenetic analysis of Crous et al. (2015), Su et al. (2016) and Li et al. (2017), Dendryphion forms a distinct lineage in Torulaceae. Recently, Li et al. (2020) added Dendryphion hydei and provided an updated phylogeny of the genus based on LSU, SSU, TEF-1, RPB2 and ITS DNA sequence data. Dendryphion is morphologically and phylogenetically a well-defined genus in Torulaceae. Molecular markers available for Dendryphion include LSU, SSU, ITS, TEF-1 and RPB2.