Pleosporales » Tetraplosphaeriaceae


Tetraploa Berk. & Broome, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., Ser. 2 5: 459 (1850).

....         = Tetraplosphaeria Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray., Studies in Mycology 64: 177 (2009).

Index Fungorum number: IF 10199; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06666, 15 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 8 species with molecular data.

Saprobic on culms, twigs, and leaves of bamboo and other Gramineae. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered to gregarious, immersed to erumpent, black to dark brown, globose to subglobose, glabrous. Ascomatal opening short-papillate to cylindrical, central, with periphyses. Peridium composed of nearly rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells, sometimes poorly developed at the base. Hamathecium of 1–4 μm wide, cellular, septate and branched pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, short pedicellate, with a shallow ocular chamber at rounded apex, basal to somewhat lateral. Ascospores 2-seriate above, uniseriate below, narrowly fusiform, straight or slightly curved, with a septum and slightly constricted, hyaline, smooth-walled, surrounded by a narrow mucilaginous appendage-like sheath. Asexual morph: Tetraploa s. str., hyphomycetous. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic. Conidia of two kinds formed directly on the mycelium: (a) large ones with setose appendages about the length of the spore (α conidia) and (b) small conidia with very long appendages (β conidia), both usually composed of 4 columns, short cylindrical, brown, verrucose at the base, euseptate, with four brown setose appendages at the apex (adapted from Ellis 1949 and Hyde et al. 2013).

 Type species: Tetraploa aristata Berk. & Broome

Notes: Tetraploa is characterised by scattered to gregarious, immersed to erumpent, black to dark brown, globose to subglobose ascomata, fissitunicate, cylindrical to clavate asci, and narrowly fusiform, hyaline, smooth-walled ascospores with a mucilaginous appendage-like sheath. The asexual morph is characterised by monoblastic conidiogenous cells, short cylindrical, brown conidia with four brown setose appendages at the apex. Tetraploa has similar conidia to Triplosphaeria but the former has conidia with three appendages. Tetraploa also resembles Pseudotetraploa but differs in that the conidia of the latter are pseudoseptate, obpyriform to long obpyriform while those of Tetraploa are short cylindrical and euseptate (Hatakeyama et al. 2005; Tanaka et al. 2009). Tanaka et al. (2009) reported that T. aristata s. lat. is a species complex comprising numerous morphologically similar but phylogenetically distinct species based on phylogenetic analysis of SSU and LSU and a separate analysis of ITS, TEF and β-tubulin gene. Massarina tetraploa is the asexual state of T. aristata but it has somewhat longer setose appendages compared to the illustration of T. aristata in the protologue (Berkeley and Broome 1850; Hyde et al. 2013). Hyde et al. (2013) treated M. tetraploa and T. aristata as two distinct species and suggested the new epithet Tetraploa scheueri for M. tetraploa to prevent a tautonym. Hyde et al. (2013) transferred several species of Tetraplosphaeria to Tetraploa. Several authors added new species to Tetraploa (Hyde et al. 2020; Bao et al. 2021; Li et al. 2021). Tetraploa is a distinct and type genus of Tetraplosphaeriaceae but comprises a species complex and is in need of revision. Molecular markers available for Tetraploa include ITS, LSU, SSU and TEF-1.


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