Pleosporales » Tetraplosphaeriaceae


Ernakulamia Subram., Kavaka 22/23: 67 (1994).

Index Fungorum number: IF 28737; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06667, 3 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 3 species with molecular data.

Saprobic on sugary exudates from insects growing on the surface of leaves, fruits, stems and other non-plant objects. Thallus a loose or dense network of pale brown, superficial hyphae or a thick pseudoparenchymatous stroma, with sexual and asexual morphs often growing together. Sexual morph: Ascomata superficial on mycelium of thallus, brown to dark brown or black, globose to ellipsoidal, short-stalked or sessile, ostiolate at maturity, scattered or in groups, without setae. Peridium comprising dark brown to pale brown, thick-walled cells forming a textura angularis. Hamathecium lacking pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, clavate, ovoid or saccate, apedicellate, lacking an ocular chamber. Ascospores overlapping bi-seriate, brown, oblong or ovoid and some reniform, transversely septate with one or more vertical septa or without vertical septa. Asexual morph:Polychaeton” spp. Pycnidia elongate, often with long stalks, dark brown. Ostiole at apex of pycnidia with hyphae continued upwards to the tapered neck, terminating in an ostiole which is surrounded by dull hyphal round ends. Conidia hyaline, 1-celled (adapted from Hyde et al. 2013).

 Type species: Ernakulamia cochinensis (Subram.) Subram.

Notes: Ernakulamia cochinensis was previously known as Petrakia cochinensis Subram. (Subramanian 1957). Ellis (1976) transferred Petrakia cochinensis to Piricauda cochinensis. Subramanian (1957) transferred Piricauda cochinensis to Ernakulamia cochinensis. Ernakulamia is characterised by superficial ascomata, clavate, ovoid or saccate, apedicellate asci and brown, oblong or ovoid and some reniform ascospores (Subramanian 1994; Jayasiri et al. 2019; Hyde et al. 2020b). The asexual morph is characterised by elongate, dark brown pycnidia, often with long stalks and hyaline, 1-celled conidia. Delgado et al. (2017) provided sequence data for E. cochinensis and treated Ernakulamia in Tetraplosphaeriaceae. Jayasiri et al. (2019) introduced the second species, E. krabiensis from decaying pods of Acacia sp. in Thailand. Hyde et al. (2020b) added the third species, E. tanakae from a decaying spathe of Cocos nucifera based on morphology and phylogeny. Ernakulamia is morphologically and phylogenetically a distinct genus in Tetraplosphaeriaceae. Molecular markers available for the genus are ITS, LSU, BTUB and RPB2.


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