Pyrenochaetopsis leptospora (Sacc. & Briard) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, in de Gruyter et al., Mycologia 102(5): 1076 (2010).
≡ Pyrenochaeta leptospora Sacc. & Briard, Revue mycol., Toulouse 11(no. 41): 16 (1889)
Index Fungorum number: IF 514654; Facesoffungi number: FoFxxx, Fig. 1
Description: see de Gruyter et al. (2010); Valenzuela-Lopez et al. (2018).
Material examined: see de Gruyter et al. (2010); Valenzuela-Lopez et al. (2018).
Figure. 1. Pyrenochaetopsis leptospora (CBS 101635, re-drawn from Figs. 17–18 in De Gruyter et al., 2009). a Phoma-like conidiogenous cells. b Elongate conidiogenous cells. Scale bars: a, b = 5 μm.
Importance and role
Importance of genus to ecosystem
Species of Pyrenochaetopsis are saprobic and helps in decomposition of organic matter in the ecosystem. Some taxa might be fungal pathogens.
Industrial relevance and applications
Pyrenochaetopsis is useful for pharmaceutical and medical industry as several compounds that have anticancer properties have been reported. Fan et al. (2020a) reported anticancer compounds namely pentacyclic decalinoylspirotetramic acid derivative, pyrenosetin D, decalin derivatives wakodecalines A and B from the endophytic strain Pyrenochaetopsis FVE-087 from seaweed. Fan et al. (2020b) reported other anticancer compounds namely decalinoyltetramic acid derivatives, pyrenosetins A-C, from the endophytic fungus Pyrenochaetopsis sp. FVE-001.
Pyrenochaetopsis might be of quarantine importance because of its pathogenic nature. Pyrenochaetopsis was reported in soybean roots (Neupane et al., 2021). Studies on pathogenicity status of Pyrenochaetopsis is limited and warrants further research.
Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications
Pyrenochaetopsis produces wide range of compounds. Nogawa et al. (2017) reported Wakodecalines A and B, decaline metabolites from Pyrenochaetopsis sp. RK10-F058. Silva et al. (2019) documented the biochemical properties and catalytic specificity of a new Neutral Serine Peptidase secreted by Pyrenochaetopsis sp. Flores-Bocanegra et al. (2020) reported several chemicals such as naphthoquinones, 5-hydroxy-6-(1-hydroxyethyl)-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthalenedione, 5-hydroxy-6-[1-(acetyloxy) ethyl]-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthalenedione, 6-ethyl-2,7-dimethoxyjuglone, kirschsteinin, misakimycin. Fan et al. (2020) reported other anticancer compounds namely decalin derivatives wakodecalines A and B from another endophytic strain Pyrenochaetopsis FVE-087 from the same seaweed.
Diversity of the genus
Even though there are 17 Pyrenochaetopsis epithets in Index fungorum, one species P. pratorum has been synonymized and transferred to another genus namely Xenopyrenochaetopsis. Pyrenochaetopsis comprises 16 species known on wide range of hosts such as Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Globodera pallida (Heteroderidae), Hordeum vulgare (Poaceae), Saccharum officinalum (Poaceae), Hordeum vulgare (Poaceae), Milium effusum (Poaceae), Secale cereale (Poaceae), Buellia sp. (Caliciaceae), Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae), Poa sp. (Poaceae), Dactylis glomerata (Poaceae), Lolium perenne (Poaceae), Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) amongst others. Pyrenochaetopsis is mainly distributed in Brazil, China, Europe, France, India, Netherlands, New Zealand and Thailand. Pyrenochaetopsis seems to be a diverse genus and might be specific to host genus or families. Future studies are likely to discover more species of Pyrenochaetopsis.
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