Setophoma Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Mycologia 102(5): 1077 (2010).
Saprobic on host. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered, gregarious, immersed, visible as raised, minute black dots on host surface, uniloculate, globose to subglobose, glabrous, brown to dark brown, ostiole central, with minute papilla; ascomatal wall thin, of equal thickness, composed of pseudoparenchymatous cells, arranged in flattened textura angularis to textura prismatica. Hamathecium composed of numerous, filiform, broad cellular pseudoparaphyses, with distinct septa, anastomosing at apex. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical to cylindric-clavate, short pedicellate, apically rounded, with well-developed narrowly ocular chamber. Ascospores overlapping, 2-seriate, phragmosporous, cylindrical to cylindrical-clavate, hyaline, 3-septate, usually enlarged at the second cell from apex, smooth-walled with large guttules. Asexual morph: Conidiomata pycnidial, solitary to confluent, superficial or submerged in agar, globose to subglobose, setose, with papillate necks, honey to olivaceous or olivaceous black, with 2–7(–11) layers of pseudoparenchymatal cells. Conidiogenous cells hyaline, monophialidic. Conidia aseptate, ellipsoidal to subcylindrical or subfusoid, guttulate (Adapted from Quaedvlieg et al., 2013; Phookamsak et al., 2014).
Type species: Setophoma terrestris (H.N. Hansen) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley
Notes: Setophoma was introduced by de Gruyter et al. (2010) with S. terrestris as type species. Setophoma is characterized by scattered, gregarious, immersed ascomata, cylindrical to cylindric-clavate, short pedicellate asci and phragmosporous, cylindrical to cylindrical-clavate, hyaline, 3-septate ascospores. Phookamsak et al. (2014) reported the sexual morph of Setophoma when describing Setophoma sacchari. Setophoma resembles Phaeosphaeria in producing ascospores with three septa and the second cell from the apex being swollen and in having different color of the cells (hyaline in Setophoma vs. yellowish to brown in Phaeosphaeria). In the phylogenetic analysis of Phookamsak et al. (2014) based on ITS and LSU, Setophoma formed a well-defined genus in Phaeosphaeriaceae but the species S. cyperi formed a distinct lineage away from members of Setophoma, representing another genus in Phaeosphaeriaceae. Liu et al. (2019) added five other species in Phaeosphaeriaceae namely Setophoma antiqua, S. endophytica, S. longinqua, S. yingyisheniae and S. yunnanensis. Several authors added new species to Setophoma (Quaedvlieg et al., 2013; Thambugala et al., 2017; Marin-Felix et al., 2019). Setophoma is morphologically and phylogenetically a well-supported genus in Phaeosphaeriaceae. Molecular markers available for Setophoma are LSU, SSU, ITS, TEF1, gapdh and RPB2.