Setomelanomma M. Morelet, Bull. Soc. Sci. nat. Arch. Toulon et du Var 36(no. 227): 15 (1980).
Pathogenic on host. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered, gregarious semi-immersed to erumpent through host tissue, becoming superficial, visible as abundant, small black dots on the host surface, uniloculate, globose to subglobose, covered by setae, dark brown to black, with central ostiole. Peridium thin-walled, of equal thickness, composed of 5– 7 layers of black, broadly pseudoparenchymatous cells, arranged in a textura angularis to textura globulosa. Hamathecium composed of numerous, filamentous, frequently anastomosing, broad cellular pseudoparaphyses, with distinct septa, embedded in mucilaginous matrix. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, broadly cylindrical to cylindric-clavate, subsessile to short pedicellate, apically rounded with well-developed ocular chamber. Ascospores overlapping 1–2-seriate, phragmosporous, ellipsoidal to broadly fusiform, initially hyaline to pale yellowish, becoming light brown to brown or yellowish-brown at maturity, initially forming one median septum, becoming 3-septate at maturity, slightly curved, often constricted at the median septum, smooth and thick-walled. Asexual morph: see notes (Adapted from Phookamsak et al., 2014).
Type species: Setomelanomma holmii M. Morelet
Notes: Setomelanomma was introduced by Morelet (1980) with S. holmii as type species. Setomelanomma is characterized by scattered, gregarious semi-immersed to erumpent ascomata, broadly cylindrical to cylindric-clavate asci and phragmosporous, ellipsoidal to broadly fusiform, initially hyaline to pale yellowish ascospores. Morelet (1980) did not provided detailed illustration and description of the fungus. Rossman et al. (2002) re-described the type species, S. holmii and compared the morphological characters with those of North American specimen. Rossman et al. (2002) accommodated Setomelanomma in Phaeosphaeriaceae based on morphology and phylogenetic evidence of SSU sequence data and this was followed by consequent authors (Kodsueb et al., 2006, 2007; Schoch et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009, 2012; Hyde et al., 2013; Phookamsak et al., 2014). Zhang et al. (2012) provided morphological description as well as phylogeny for Setomelanomma whereby members of the latter genus clustered with taxa in Phaeosphaeriaceae. Setomelanomma resembles members of Phaeosphaeriaceae in having relatively small ascomata, thin-walled peridium comprising pseudoparenchymatous cells, cellular pseudoparaphyses and brown to yellowish-brown phragmosporous ascospores but can be differentiated from other genera in having setose ascomata (Rossman et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2012). There is no report of the asexual morph of Setomelanomma. In the phylogenetic analysis of Phookamsak et al. (2014) based on LSU, SSU, TEF1 and RPB2 sequence data, Setomelanomma clustered with asexual species, Xenoseptoria neosaccardoi and Paraphoma radicina (CBS 111.79) in Phaeosphaeriaceae and the authors suggested that these genera might be asexual morphs of Setomelanomma. Setomelanomma is currently a distinct and well-defined genus in Phaeosphaeriaceae but is monotypic. More taxa with DNA sequence data will enable to verify the status of the genus.