Parastagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Quaedvl., Verkley & Crous, Stud. Mycol. 75: 363 (2013).
≡ Depazea nodorum Berk., Gard. Chron., London: 601 (1845).
Index Fungorum number: IF 804438; Facesoffungi number: FoF 11644, Fig. 1
Description: see Quaedvlieg et al. (2013), Li et al. (2015, 2016a), Thambugala et al. (2017b), Goonasekara et al. (2019) and Marin-Felix et al. (2019).
Material examined: see Quaedvlieg et al. (2013), Li et al. (2015, 2016a), Thambugala et al. (2017b), Goonasekara et al. (2019) and Marin-Felix et al. (2019).
Figure. 1. Parastagonospora nodorum (CBS H-13909, re-drawn from Fig. 59 in Quaedvlieg et al., 2013). a Asci. b Ascospores. Scale bars: a, b = 10 μm.
Importance and role
Importance of genus to ecosystem
Species of Parastagonospora are saprobic or pathogenic. As saprobes, they help in nutrient recycling of the ecosystem. As pathogen, they cause disease on wide range of hosts for example, Parastagonospora nodorum is a major necrotrophic pathogen of wheat (Cunfer, 2000).
Industrial relevance and applications
Parastagonospora is useful for pharmaceutical and medical industry as several VOCs is reported from Parastagonospora nodorum which exhibit phytotoxic, antibiotic, and self-inhibitory properties.
Parastagonospora is of quarantine importance due to its pathogenic nature. For example, Parastagonospora avenae is the causal agent of leaf blotch of barley and rye, and is considered as an important pathogen of oats (Cunfer 2000). Parastagonospora nodorum is a major necrotrophic pathogen of wheat that causes leaf and glume blotch and infects barley (Cunfer, 2000; Oliver et al., 2012).
Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications
Parastagonospora produces wide range of chemicals. Chooi et al. (2015) reported that the SnPKS19 encodes the Polyketide Synthase for Alternariol Mycotoxin Biosynthesis in Parastagonospora nodorum affecting wheat. P. nodorum produces effectors like ToxA, Tox1 and Tox3 (Liu et al., 2012), phytotoxic α‑Pyrones (Li et al., 2018). Several alcohols and esters were reported in the VOCs mixture such as 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-phenylethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol as well as polyketide mullein and other sesquiterpenes such as-elemene and eudesma-4,11-diene (Muria-Gonzalez et al., 2020). Veselova et al. (2021) reported multiple fungal necrotrophic effectors (NEs) (SnTox) that cause necrosis and chlorosis in wheat lines having dominant susceptibility genes (Snn). El-Demerdash et al. (2021) reported cytotoxic constituents from the wheat plant pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum SN15 such as isoleucinic acid derivatives and cis procuramine. Outram et al. (2021) studied the structure and function of SnTox3 and showed that this effector causes cell death in wheat-lines carrying the sensitivity gene Snn3.
Diversity of the genus
Parastagonospora comprises 19 species known on several host plants such as Lolium multiflorum (Poaceae), Carex acutiformis (Cyperaceae), Phalaris arundinacea (Poaceae), Dactylis sp. (Poaceae), Leymus chinensis (Poaceae), Lolium perenne (Poaceae), Triticum dicoccum (Poaceae), Phoenix canariensis (Arecaceae), Phragmites sp. (Poaceae) and Poa sp. (Poaceae). One species Parastagonospora phoenicicola has been synonymized and transferred to Phaeosphaeria. Parastagonospora has wide geographical distribution such as Australia, China, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, New York, New Zealand and Turkey. Parastagonospora may comprise many more species that awaits discovery.
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