Ampelomyces quisqualis Ces., in Klotzsch, Bot. Ztg. 10: 301 (1852).
Description: see Phookamsak et al. (2014); Gawtam and Avasthi (2016).
Material examined: see Phookamsak et al. (2014); Gawtam and Avasthi (2016).
Figure. 1. Ampelomyces quisqualis (re-drawn from Fig. 4 in Gawtam & Avasthi, 2016). a Conidia. b Pycnidia. Scale bar = 20 μm.
Importance and role
Importance of genus to ecosystem
Members of Ampelomyces are mycoparasites and can parasitize and prevent the spread of powdery mildews on different food crops for example, grapes, cucumber (Dominic & Marthamakobe, 2016; Siozios et al., 2015; Lee et al., 2007). Liyanage et al. (2018) reported that Ampelomyces mycoparasite is also closely related to other mycohost taxa in the Erysiphe genus. Ampelomyces quisqualis infects senescent colonies of Uncinula necator (syn. Erysiphe necator) in late summer (Stuart, 1995).
Industrial relevance and applications
Ampelomyces is an effective biocontrol agent against Erysiphe cichoracearum, the causal agent Powdery Mildew disease in Bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Ravichandran et al., 2019). Some strains of Ampelomyces have already been industrialized as commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs) in some EU countries for grapevine powdery mildew commonly known as the “AQ10 Biofungicide” (Shishkoff & McGrath, 2002; Kiss, 2003).
Ampelomyces is of quarantine significance due to its mycoparasitic nature. Ampelomyces is in the quarantine list of bio pesticides for India (ITCC 1936-2016).
Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications
Rotem et al. (1999) reported that Ampelomyces quisqualis exhibited high levels of extracellular exo-β-1,3-glucanase activity in culture. Zhang et al. (2009) reported Polyoxygenated Methyl Cyclohexanoids from the Terrestrial Ampelomyces Fungus.
Diversity of the genus
Even though there are 18 Ampelomyces in Species fungorum, the real number of species is less as two species have been synonymized and transferred to other genera namely Cicinobolus and Nothophoma. Ampelomyces comprises 16 species known on several host plants such as Anchusa officinalis (Boraginaceae), Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Blepharis asperrima (Acanthaceae), Brasiliomyces malachrae (Erysiphaceae), Brassica napus (Brassicaceae), Cassia occidentalis (Fabaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), Clitoria ternatea (Fabaceae), Crotalaria retusa (Fabaceae), Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae), Cucurbita sp. (Cucurbitaceae), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (Fabaceae), Dalbergia sissoo (Fabaceae), Glycine javanica (Fabaceae), Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae), Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Lagascea mollis (Asteraceae), Leptadenia reticulata (Apocynaceae), Lygodesmia juncea (Asteraceae), Marrubium peregrinum (Lamiaceae), Microsphaera alphitoides (Erysiphaceae) amongst others. Ampelomyces has wide geographical distribution namely Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colorado, Cuba, India, Italy, Myanmar, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Venezuela amongst others. Ampelomyces may comprise many more species that awaits discovery. Future studies must attempt to collect more species of Ampelomyces as molecular data is available for only one species.