Paralophiostoma V.V. Sarma & M. Niranjan, in Hongsanan et al., Mycosphere 11(1): 1943 (2020).
Index Fungorum number: IF 556725; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06622, 1 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2021), 1 species with molecular data.
Saprobic on dead and decaying twigs. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecoid, scattered, carbonaceous, subglobose, immersed, erumpent with hysterothecoid necks, clypeate, apical long slit-like ostioles, periphysate. Peridium thick-walled with several layers of textura angularis cells. Hamathecium comprising numerous, filamentous, septate, unbranched, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, anastomosing in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindro-clavate, apically rounded with ocular chamber, long pedicellate. Ascospores overlapping 1-seriate, fusiform, hyaline to pale brown when young, brown to dark brown at maturity, 1-septate with a constriction when young, 3-septate with constrictions at maturity, central septum strongly constricted, uni-guttulate in each cell, obtuse ends with apical caps, each spore having one, supramedian cell, spores often splitting into part spores at maturity. Asexual morph: Undetermined.
Type species: Paralophiostoma hysterioides M. Niranjan & V.V. Sarma
Notes: Paralophiostoma was introduced by Sarma et al. in Hongsanan et al. (2020) with P. hysterioides as type species. Paralophiostoma is characterized by perithecoid subglobose ascomata, thick-walled peridium comprising cells of textura angularis, cylindro-clavate asci and brown to dark brown fusiform ascospores. Paralophiostoma resembles several genera in Lophiostomataceae such as Alpestrisphaeria, Biappendiculispora, Guttulispora, Neopaucispora, Parapaucispora, Paucispora and Sigarispora in producing 3-septate, brown ascospores but differs in that the mentioned genera lack appendages or sheaths while, Paralophiostoma is characterized by 3-septate, brown ascospores with bipolar appendages and a thin (developing) sheath. Paralophiostoma has close affinities to Guttulispora but differs in having dark brown ascospores with apical caps, splitting into part spores (Thambugala et al. 2015). Paralophiostoma also share similarities with Lophiostoma in having slit-like ostioles in the ascomata, long pedicellate asci and frequently phragmosporous, fusiform ascospores but differs from Lophiostoma in having immersed ascomata erumpent with hysterothecoid necks opening with slit-like ostioles, cylindrical asci instead of clavate asci and ascospores splitting into part spores at maturity. Paralophiostoma is a distinct and well-supported genus in Paralophiostomataceae both morphologically and phylogenetically.
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