Phragmocephala E.W. Mason & S. Hughes, Naturalist (Hull), ser. 3, 1951: 97 (1951).
Saprobic on host. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Colonies superficial, scattered, dark brown to black. Hyphae hyaline, septate, smooth. Conidiophores macronematous, septate, unbranched or branched, erect, dark brown at the base, pale brown at apex, 4–8-septate. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, terminal, integrated, light brown to pale brown. Conidia 4–6 septate, ellipsoidal to subglobose, dark brown, pale brown at apical and basal cells, sometimes often released with part of conidiogenous cell (Adapted from Tian et al. 2015).
Type species: Phragmocephala elliptica (Berk. & Broome) S. Hughes 1979
Notes: Phragmocephala was introduced by Mason and Hughes (1951) with P. elliptica as type species. Phragmocephala elliptica was previously known as Monotospora elliptica but was not congeneric with the type of Monotospora, M. toruloides. Phragmocephala is characterized by superficial, scattered, dark brown to black colonies, macronematous, dark brown at the base, pale brown at apex, 4–8-septate conidiophores and 4–6 septate, ellipsoidal to subglobose, dark brown conidia, pale brown at apical and basal cells. Phragmocephala resembles Endophragmia in having similar type of conidiogenesis (Ellis 1959; 1971; Hughes 1979). Ellis (1959, 1971) synonymized Phragmocephala to Endophragmia based on similarities in conidiogenesis. Later, Hughes (1979) re-introduced Phragmocephala and transferred four species from Endophragmia to Phragmocephala. Su et al. (2015) added a new species, P. garethjonesii (MFLUCC 15–0021) and a new collection of P. atra (MFLUCC 15–0018) based on morphology and LSU, ITS and SSU sequence data. Su et al. (2015) confirmed the placement of Phragmocephala in Melannomataceae based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence. Phragmocephala is a distinct and well-defined genus in Melannomataceae.