Pleosporales » Melanommataceae


Exosporiella P. Karst., Finlands mögelsvampar, (Hyphomycetes fennici): 160 (1892).

 Index Fungorum number: IF 8236; Facesoffungi number: FoF 01024; 1 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), no molecular data available.

Saprobic or fungicolous in terrestrial habitats. Sexual morph: Ascomata gregarious on prosenchymatous stroma with a intertwined hyphae, superficial, black, coriaceous or carbonaceous, ostiolate. Ostiole single, circular to papillate, central, depressed. Peridium a single layer, composed of brown or heavily pigmented, thick-walled cells of textura angularis or textura globosa. Hamathecium comprising dense, filiform, hyaline, persistent pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, clavate, with a short pedicel, apically rounded with an ocular chamber. Ascospores uni-seriate, partially overlapping bi-seriate, brown, short fusiform to narrowly fusoid, with narrowly rounded ends, uniseptate, rarely 2- to 3-septate, deeply constricted at the mid septum, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous. Intertwined hyphae mainly superficial, around the pseudothecia, composed of branched, brown to black hyphae with integrated conidiogenous cells, distinction between conidiophores and hyphae inconspicuous. Hyphae pale brown in mass, smooth. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, phialidic, percurrent, subcylindrical to geniculate, sub-hyaline to pale brown, thin-walled, smooth-walled, formed from the mass of hyphae adpressed to the outer wall layer of the ascomata wall. Conidia initially hyaline, pale yellowish brown to brown at maturity, oblong to fusoid, mostly straight, infrequently slightly curved, usually with 4 transverse septa, slightly constricted at the septa, slightly rounded at apex, rounded to abruptly attenuated towards a more or less conspicuous tapering base with an appendage, smooth-walled (Tian et al. 2015).


Type species: Exosporiella fungorum (Fr.) P. Karst.


Notes: Exosporiella is characterised by ascomata gregarious on a prosenchymatous stroma with intertwined hyphae, bitunicate, clavate asci, and partially overlapping bi-seriate, brown, short fusiform to narrowly fusoid uniseptate ascospores. The asexual morph is characterised by superficial intertwined hyphae, holoblastic, phialidic, percurrent, subcylindrical to geniculate conidiogenous cells, and hyaline, pale yellowish brown to brown conidia. Exosporiella fungorum was previously known as Epochniella fungorum (Tian et al. 2015). Ellis (1971) described and illustrated the asexual morph Exosporiella. It has been reported that the asexual morph Exosporiella and sexual morph Anomalemma are linked but the placement of these two genera have been doubtful and referred to several genera such as Byssosphaeria, Chaetosphaeria, Leptosphaeria and Melanomma (Saccardo 1878; Ellis 1883; Massee 1887; Keissler 1922; Ellis 1971; Sivanesan 1983; Tian et al. 2015). Sivanesan (1983) reported that Anomalemma is fungicolous. Tian et al. (2015) examined the isotype of Anomalemma epochnii and reported the asexual morph of Exosporiella on the surface of nearby stroma. Molecular data is lacking for the genus. Wijayawardene et al. (2014b) and Tian et al. (2015) accepted Anomalemma as a synonym of Exosporiella and treated Exosporiella in Melanommataceae. The placement of Exosporiella is still doubtful and fresh collections are needed to confirm the correct taxonomic placement of the genus.


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