Massarina Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 2: 153 (1883).
Saprobic on host. Sexual morph: Ascomata immersed, clypeate, oval or globose in vertical section, ellipsoidal to subglobose in horizontal section, with a central ostiole. Clypeus comprising compact brown-walled angular to globose cells, beneath host epidermis. Peridium thin, comprising a few layers of hyaline elongate cells. Pseudoparaphyses embedded in a gelatinous matrix, sheetlike, hypha-like, filamentous, septate. Asci 8-spored, cylindric clavate, pedunculate, bitunicate, fissitunicate, with an ocular chamber and faint subapical ring. Ascospores (1-)2-3-seriate, fusiform to ellipsoidal, bicellular or multiseptate, hyaline, some becoming brown when old, most surrounded by a narrow mucilaginous sheath, some with more elaborate sheath (Adapted from Hyde 1995). Asexual morph: Conidiophores enteroblastic, phialidic, cylindrical or sub-cylindrical, sub-hyaline. Conidia cylindrical, hyaline, smooth and thin-walled, aseptate, rounded ends, guttulate, without sheet or appendages (Adapted from Tibpromma et al., 2018).
Type species: Massarina eburnea (Tul. & C. Tul.) Sacc.
Notes: Massarina was introduced by Saccardo (1883) with M. eburnea as type species. Massarina is characterized by immersed, clypeate, oval or globose ascomata, clypeus comprising compact brown-walled angular to globose cells, cylindric clavate, pedunculate asci and fusiform to ellipsoidal, bicellular or multiseptate ascospores. The asexual morph of Massarina was reported by Tibpromma et al. (2018) and is characterized by enteroblastic, phialidic, cylindrical or sub-cylindrical, sub-hyaline conidiophores and cylindrical, hyaline conidia without sheet or appendages. Saccardo (1883) proposed Massarina SacCo to separate taxa characterized by hyaline ascospores which had previously been accommodated in Massaria. Saccardo accepted 11 species in Massarina, including Massarina ebumea (Tul. & C. Tul.) SacCo (= Massaria ebumea Tul. & C. Tul.), but did not designate it as the type. Munk (1956) described Massarinaceae to accommodate Massarina. Clements and Shear (1957) chose M. eburnea as lectotype of Massarina and this was accepted by Bose (1961). Since then, several species have been added to Massarina. Bose (1961) accepted 19 species in Massarina while Kohlmeyer and Volkmann-Kohlmeyer (1987) and Hyde (1989) described 39 species without considering the species excluded by Bose (1961). Bose (1961) and Sivanesan (1984) reported a pycnidial morph of M. eburnea as Ceratophoma sp. which is considered to be spermatial in function. Hyde et al. (1995) provided a detailed description of M. eburnea by observing the holotype of Sphaeria pupula var. minor and listed 160 epithets. Bose (1961), Eriksson and Yue (1986) and Barr (1987, 1990) transferred Massarina to Lophiostomataceae in the Pleosporales based on morphology. Aptroot (1998) observed around 1,000 specimens under the name Massarina and accepted only 43 species based on morphology. Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of previous studies showed that Massarina is polyphyletic (Hyde, 1995; Kirk et al., 2008; Liew et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2012). Zhang et al. (2009a, b) accepted only M. cisti and M. eburnea in Massarina s. str. based on phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear loci namely LSU, SSU, TEF1, RPB1 and RPB2. Zhang et al. (2012) confined the generic type M. eburnea and similar species to Massarina sensu stricto. The generic concept of Massarina has been greatly amended based on phylogenetic evidence and several genera has been introduced from the Massarina s. lato namely Halomassarina, Lentithecium, Lindgomyces, Morosphaeria, Tetraplosphaeria and Triplosphaeria (Suetrong et al., 2009; Tanaka et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009b; Hirayama et al., 2010). Several authors accepted the concept of Massarina as having single or aggregated, immersed to erumpent, spherical to hemispherical, pseudothecia, cellular pseudoparaphyses, cylindrical to clavate or obpyriform asci and hyaline, 1-3(-7)-septate, fusiform to long ellipsoid ascospores surrounded by a mucilaginous sheath or appendages (Aptroot, 1998; Hyde & Aptroot, 1998; Tanaka & Harada, 2003; Zhang et al., 2009; Tanaka et al., 2015). The genera segregated from Massarina s. lat. are phylogenetically diverse distributed in several genera such as Halomassarina (Suetrong et al., 2009), Lentithecium, Tingoldiago (Zhang et al., 2009c; Hirayama et al., 2010), Lindgomyces (Hirayama et al., 2010), Morosphaeria (Suetrong et al., 2009) and Triplosphaeria (Tanaka et al., 2009). Massarina is highly polyphyletic in Massarinaceae (Liew et al., 2002). Molecular markers useful to delineate species of Massarina are LSU, SSU, TEF1, RPB1 and RPB2.