Sphaerellopsis filum (Biv.) B. Sutton, Mycol. Pap. 141: 196 (1977).
≡ Sphaeria filum Biv., Stirp. Rar. Sic. 3: 12 (1815).
Index Fungorum number: IF 323723; Facesoffungi number: FoF 11570, Fig. 1
Description: see Trakunyingcharoen et al. (2014) and Ariyawansa et al. (2014).
Material examined: see Trakunyingcharoen et al. (2014) and Ariyawansa et al. (2014).
Importance and distribution
Sphaerellopsis species are cosmopolitan mycoparasites infecting powdery mildew and present on a wide range of plant rusts (Yao et al. 2016).
Industrial relevance and applications
Zapf et al. (2010) reported Darlucins A and B which are Isocyanide antibiotics from Sphaerellopsis filum (Darluca filum). Sphaerellopsis is also a potential biological control organism for switchgrass rust (Black 2012).
Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications
Sphaerellopsis produces wide range of chemicals such as 3-Butoxy-1,1,1,5,5,5, 3-methyl-3-methyl butyl ester, Butanoic acid, Decane, hexamethyl-3-(trimethylsiloxy) trisiloxane, Phenol, which have anti-microbial, anti-fungal and anti-oxidant activities (Sri et al. 2020).
There are ten Sphaerellopsis epithets in Index Fungorum (2022), but two species Sphaerellopsis confertissima and S. geranii have been synonymized and transferred to Venturia. Kranz and Brandenburger (1981) reported that S. filum has been found associated with 369 rust species belonging to 30 genera. Sphaerellopsis comprises seven species known on wide range of plants and fungi such as Abies grandis (Pinaceae), Agropyron repens (Poaceae), Allium ampeloprasum (Amaryllidaceae), Anigozanthos flavidus (Haemodoraceae), Canna glauca (Cannaceae), Carex sp. (Cyperaceae), Celtis sp. (Cannabaceae), Chrysomyxa abietis (Coleosporiaceae), Cotoneaster sp. (Rosaceae) amongst others. Sphaerellopsis is reported from several countries such as Africa (Algeria), Asia (India), Europe (England, Uzbekistan, Ukraine), North America (Canada), Oceania (Australia, New Zealand), South America (Brazil, Poland) and the United States (Florida, Virginia, West Indies).
Ariyawansa H, Thambugala K, Kang JC, Alias S, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD. 2014 – Towards a natural classification of Dothideomycetes 2: The genera Cucurbidothis, Heterosphaeriopsis, Hyalosphaera, Navicella and Pleiostomellina (Dothideomycetes incertae sedis). Phytotaxa 176, 007–017.
Black J. 2012 – The epidemiology of Puccinia emaculata (rust) in switchgrass and evaluation of the mycoparasite Sphaerellopsis filum as a potential biological control organism for switchgrass rust. Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee. Available at: https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_gradthes/1251
Keener PD. 1951 – An ascigerous stage of Darluca filum (Biv.) castagne. Plant Disease Report 35, 86–87.
Kranz J, Brandenburger W. 1981 – An amended host list of the rust parasite Eudarluca caricis. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 88, 682–702.
Nag Raj TR. 1993 – Coelomycetous anamorphs with appendage-bearing conidia. Mycologue Publications, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada 1101.
Phookamsak R, Liu JK, McKenzie EH, Manamgoda DS et al. 2014 – Revision of Phaeosphaeriaceae. Fungal Diversity 68, 159–238.
Sri P, Vaithiyanathan S, Thiruvengadam R 2020 – Metabolites of the rust mycoparasite, Sphaerellopsis paraphysata for management of rust in pearl millet. Journal of Biological Control 34, 94–100.
Sutton BC. 1980 – The Coelomycetes: Fungi imperfecti with pycnidia, acervular and stromata. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England.
Trakunyingcharoen T, Lombard L, Groenewald JZ, Cheewangkoon R et al. 2014 – Mycoparasitic species of Sphaerellopsis, and allied lichenicolous and other genera. IMA fungus 5, 391–414.
Yao X, Fan Y, Chai Q, Johnson RD, Nan Z, Li C. 2016 – Modification of Susceptible and Toxic Herbs on Grassland Disease. Scientific Reports 6, 30635.
Yuan ZW, Pei MH, Hunter T, Royle DJ. 1998 – Eudarluca caricis, the teleomorph of the mycoparasite sphaerellopsis filum, on blackberry rust phragmidium violaceum. Mycological Research 102, 866–868.
Zapf S, HoßFeld M, Anke H, Velten R, Steglich W. 2010 – Darlucins A and B, New Isocyanide Antibiotics from Sphaerellopsis filum (Darluca filum). The Journal of antibiotics 48, 36–41.
Zhang Y, Crous PW, Schoch CL, Hyde KD. 2012 – Pleosporales. Fungal Diversity 53, 1–221.