Juxtiphoma eupyrena (Sacc.) Valenz.-Lopez, Crous, Stchigel, Guarro & Cano, in Valenzuela-Lopez, Cano-Lira, Guarro, Sutton, Wiederhold, Crous & Stchigel, Stud. Mycol. 90: 40 (2017).
≡ Phoma eupyrena Sacc., Michelia 1(no. 5): 525 (1879).
Index Fungorum number: IF 821112; Facesoffungi number: FoF xxx, Fig. 1
Description: see Boerema et al. (2004); Valenzuela-Lopez et al. (2017).
Material examined: see Boerema et al. (2004); Valenzuela-Lopez et al. (2017).
Fig. 1. Juxtiphoma eupyrena (redrawn from Phoma eupyrena, Fig 22 in Gruyter and Noordeloos 1992).
Importance and role
Importance of genus to ecosystem
Species of Juxtiphoma are fungal plant pathogen infecting host plant. J. eupyrena is the causal agent of leaf blight in Pistia stratiotes (L) Fam Araceae (water lettuce) (Orjiekwe et al. 2013). Some studies reported Phoma blight of fir and douglas-fir seedlings (Moham Babu et al., 2003; Kliejunas et al., 1985; Hansen and Hamm 1988). J. eupyrena is also a common soil-inhabiting fungus that can cause tip dieback of conifer seedlings (Dorenbosch 1970).
Industrial relevance and applications
The industrial applications of Juxtiphoma has not been investigated. Juxtiphoma may produce important enzymes. This needs further studies.
J. eupyrena has high mycoherbicidal potential on Achyrenthus aspera (Amaranthaceae) (Khanna and Chandra 1977).
Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications
Juxtiphoma can produce several chemicals and secondary metabolites. J. eupyrena is reported to produce an extracellular glycoprotein (Pe 65) in concentrations of ∼ 8 µg ml−1 in the stationary culture (Babu et al. 2003).
Diversity of the genus
Juxtiphoma comprises only one species J. eupyrena (Phoma eupyrena Sacc. 1879) known on several host plants such as Amaryllidaceae, Apiaceae, Arecaceae, Asparagaceae, Asteraceae, Ericaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Solanaceae and Vitaceae amongst others. Juxtiphoma has been reported mainly from Australia, Bangaldesh, California, Florida, Hong Kong, India, Kenya, Malawi, Netherlands, New York, Poland, Switzerland Uruguay amongst others. Many hosts and regions are still understudied for the genus. More taxa of Juxtiphoma can be discovered in future studies.
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