Pleosporales » Camarosporiaceae » Camarosporium

Camarosporium quaternatum

Camarosporium quaternatum (Hazsl.) Schulzer, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 20: 649 (1870).

Clinterium quaternatum Hazsl., Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 15: 451 (1865).

            Index Fungorum number: IF 562093; Facesoffungi number: FoF 11466, Fig. 1

Description: see Crous and Groenewald (2017); Wanasinghe et al. (2017).

Material examined: see Crous and Groenewald (2017); Wanasinghe et al. (2017).


Fig. 1 Camarosporium quaternatum (CPC 31081, re-drawn from Fig. 5 in Crous and Groenewald 2017). a Immersed ascomata on twig. b Immature ascus with ascospores. c Mature ascus with ascospores. d Ascospores. e, f Conidiogenous cells giving rise to Camarosporium conidia. g Conidia. Scale bars: a = 200 μm, b–g = 10 μm.

Importance and distribution

Camarosporium is mainly saprobic but species can cause disease on wide range of hosts. For example, C. dalmaticum causes Dalmatian disease of olive fruits (González et al. 2006). There are 520 Camarosporium records in Index Fungorum (2022), but many species have been transferred to other genera such as Amarenomyces, Botryosphaeria, Camarosporellum, Camarosporidiella, Camarosporiopsis, Coryneopsis, Dichomera, Macrophoma, Neocamarosporium, Phaeosphaeriopsis, Pseudocamarosporium, Sarcophoma and Staurosphaeria. Camarosporium comprises 261 species known on a wide range of plants such as Acacia arabica (Fabaceae), Acanthophyllum sp. (Caryophyllaceae), Acer negundo (Sapindaceae), Achillea cretica (Asteraceae), Artemisia sp. (Asteraceae), Atriplex sp. (Amaranthaceae), Carduus gayanus (Asteraceae), Celastrus orbiculata (on dead stems) (Celastraceae), Cirsium sp. (Asteraceae), Colutea arborescens (Fabaceae), Mausolea eriocarpa (Asteraceae), Pinus halepensis (Pinaceae), Pyrethrum sp. (Asteraceae) and others. Camarosporium has a wide distribution including Asia (Pakistan, Russia, Uzbekistan), Australia, Europe (Greece, Spain, Ukraine), the United States (New York) and many more. Camarosporium is a genus with very high diversity but with taxonomic pitfalls. Only two species among 261 taxa have molecular data and it might be that other species of Camarosporium also belong to other genera as well. Camarosporium is hence, a complex genus that needs revision. These taxa need to be re-collected in order to better understand their morphological and phylogenetic characters.




Crous PW, Giraldo A, Hawksworth DL, Robert V, Kirk PM et al. 2014 –The Genera of Fungi: fixing the application of type species of generic names. IMA Fungus 5, 141–160.

Crous PW, Groenewald JZ. 2017 – The Genera of Fungi – G 4: Camarosporium and Dothiora. IMA Fungus 8, 131–152.

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González N, Trapero A, Osuna EV. 2006 – Dalmatian disease of olive fruits, 1: Biology and damages in olive orchards of the Seville province [Spain].

Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. 2008 – Ainsworth & Bisby’s dictionary of the fungi, 10th edn. CABI, Wallingford.

Liu JK, Phookamsak R, Doilom M, Wikee S et al. 2012 – Towards a natural classification of Botryosphaeriales. Fungal diversity 57, 149–210.

Schoch CL, Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Boehm EW et al. 2009 – A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes. Studies in Mycology 64, 1–15S10.

Sutton BC. 1980 – The Coelomycetes: Fungi imperfecti with pycnidia, acervular and stromata. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England.

Wanasinghe D, Hyde KD, Jeewon R, Crous P et al. 2017 – Phylogenetic revision of Camarosporium (Pleosporineae, Dothideomycetes) and allied genera. Studies in Mycology 87, 207–256.

Wijayawardene DNN, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD. 2012 – Towards incorporating anamorphic fungi in a natural classification–checklist and notes for 2011. Mycosphere 3,157–228.

Wijayawardene NN, Crous PW, Kirk PM, Hawksworth DL et al. 2014 – Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes-2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names. Fungal diversity 69, 1–55.

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Wanasinghe DN, Papizadeh M et al. 2016 – Taxonomy and phylogeny of dematiaceous coelomycetes. Fungal Diversity 77, 1–316.


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