Camarosporium Schulzer, Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 17: 717. (1870).
Index Fungorum number: IF 7476; Facesoffungi number: FoF 00405, 261 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 2 species with molecular data.
Saprobic on host. Sexual morph: Ascomata pseudothecial, single or in clusters, subcorticolous, +/- globose, black, ostiolum central, short papillate and terete, without setae; ascomatal wall of textura angularis. Pseudoparaphyses numerous, filiform, cellular, multi-celled, branched, anastomosing, hyaline, smooth. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical, apically rounded, pedicel short and furcate, thick-walled, bitunicate, fissitunicate, inamyloid. Ascospores 6-celled, ellipsoidal, straight, muriform, golden, with 1-3 longitudinal septa, eguttulate, without gelatinuous sheath and appendages. Asexual morph: Conidiomata dimorphic, pycnidial, subcorticolous, single to gregarious, partly caespitose, globose, ostiole central, terete, short papillate. Conidiomata wall few layered, consisting of a textura globulosa-angularis with red-brown, thick-walled, and smooth-cells. Paraphyses and conidiophores absent. Conidiogenous cells formed from the inner cells of the pycnidial wall, doliiform, hyaline, thin-walled, annellidic. Conidia multi-celled, muriformly septate, with one longitudinal or diagonal septum per cell and 1-2 per conidium, ellipsoidal, pyroid, clavate, straight to slightly curved, yellowish not brown, basal cell often paler or hyaline, wall golden. Synasexual morph: Conidiomata separate, pycnidial, immersed to superficial on PNA, brown, globose with 1-2 papillate ostioles, exuding a crystalline conidial mass. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells lining the inner cavity, hyaline, smooth, ampulliform. Conidia solitary, hyaline, smooth, subcylindrical, straight, rarely curved, apex obtuse, base truncate (adapted from Crous and Groenewald 2017).
Type species: Camarosporium quaternatum (Hazsl.) Schulzer
Notes: Camarosporium is characterised by pseudothecial ascomata without setae, cylindrical, apically rounded 8-spored asci, and multi-celled, ellipsoidal, straight, muriform ascospores. The asexual morph is characterised by dimorphic, pycnidial, subcorticolous conidiomata, doliiform, hyaline, thin-walled, annellidic conidiogenous cells, and muriformly septate, ellipsoidal, pyroid, or clavate conidia. The synasexual morph is characterised by separate, pycnidial, immersed to superficial conidiomata, hyaline, smooth, ampulliform conidiogenous cells and solitary, hyaline, smooth, subcylindrical conidia. Sutton (1980) mentioned that Camarosporium is heterogeneous referring to Camarosporium propinquum as an example. Wijayawardene et al. (2014) confirmed the observation of Sutton (1980) and reported that C. propinquum is a taxon in Didymosphaeriaceae. Several authors linked Camarosporium to Cucurbitaria (Kirk et al. 2008; Wijayawardene et al. 2012; Doilom et al. 2013). Schoch et al. (2009) linked Camarosporium to Leptosphaeriaceae while others mentioned that Camarosporium is related to Botryosphaeriales (Kirk et al. 2008; Liu et al. 2012; Wijayawardene et al. 2012). Crous et al. (2006) mentioned that C. quaternatum does not belong in the Botryosphaeriales. Other authors mentioned that Camarosporium is polyphyletic within Pleosporales (Crous et al. 2014; Wanasinghe et al. 2014; Wijayawardene et al. 2014, 2016; Crous and Groenewald 2017). Crous and Groenewald (2017) chose an epitype for C. quaternatum and accommodated Camarosporium s. str. in Coniothyriaceae mentioning that this complex is characterised by phoma-like synasexual and pleospora-like sexual morphs. Camarosporium morphologically resembles several genera in Dothideomycetes such as Camarographium, Camarosporiopsis, Camarosporula, Dichomera, Didymellocamarosporium, Hazslinszkyomyces, Libertasomyces, Magnicamarosporium, Melanocamarosporium, Melanocamarosporioides, Melnikia, Murilentithecium, and Neocamarosporium amongst others in conidial shape and septation, yet, Camarosporium is phylogenetically distinct from these taxa. Wanasinghe et al. (2017) studied the phylogenetic relationships of Camarosporium in Pleosporineae based on a concatenated dataset of LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF-1 DNA sequence data and validated Camarosporiaceae to accommodate Camarosporium. Camarosporium is a well-defined genus in Camarosporiaceae but several taxa lack sequence data. Molecular markers available for Camarosporium are ITS, LSU, SSU, RPB2 and TEF-1.
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