Parmulariales » Parmulariaceae


Mintera Inácio & P.F. Cannon, Mycol. Res. 107(1): 86 (2003).

Index Fungorum number: IF 28710; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02317, 1 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2021), molecular data unavailable.

Parasitic on leaves. Colonies superficial on the upper surface of leaves. Sexual morph: Ascostromata black, first circular but becoming stellate, multilocular, on brown to dark purple leaf spots. External mycelium brown, branching dichotomously at acute angles, with semicircular appressoria. Internal stroma subcuticular, composed of indistinct hyaline hyphal tissue with dark brown columnar structures and linked to intracellular haustoria below. Ascomatal locules round, ellipsoidal or elongate. Interascal tissue composed of cellular pseudoparaphyses, sometimes dichotomously branched and torulose near the smooth or verrucose apices. Asci clavate to widely clavate, thick-walled, not blueing in iodine, 2- to 8-spored, with rostrate dehiscence. Ascospores cylindric-ellipsoidal to ellipsoidal, becoming pale brown, verrucose, 1-septate. Asexual morph: Unknown (Adapted from Inacio and Cannon 2003).


Type species: Mintera reticulata (Starbäck) Inácio & P.F. Cannon


Notes: Mintera was introduced by Inácio and Cannon (2003) with M. reticulata as type species. Mintera is characterized by black, circular ascostromata, clavate to widely clavate asci and cylindric-ellipsoidal to ellipsoidal, becoming pale brown, verrucose, 1-septate ascospores. Mintera resembles Viegasella in having dark-brown to black, circular, elliptical stroma, with prominent radiating locules from a central part, opening by longitudinal slits but differs in having superficial brown mycelium with appressoria, a brown rather than colorless internal stroma, and interascal tissue which is occasionally torulose.  Mintera differs from Parmularia in having intracellular coralloid haustoria, with brown pegs while Mintera has poorly developed internal stroma with haustoria that are amoeboid. Mintera differs from Symphaeophyma in that the latter has superficial hyphae which do not form appressoria, less visibly radial stromata and much larger ascomatal locules and asci while Mintera has layer of thick stromatic cells that form coralloid haustoria. Mintera is unique and differs from all genera in Parmulariaceae in having a well-developed external mycelium with appressoria. The taxonomic placement of Mintera in Parmulariaceae is doubtful because of lack of molecular data. Fresh collections and DNA sequence data are needed to confirm the correct taxonomic placement of the genus.


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