Mycosphaerellales » Mycosphaerellaceae » Sirosporium

Sirosporium antenniforme

Sirosporium antenniforme (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Bubák & Serebrian. [as 'antennaeforme'], Hedwigia 52: 273 (1912).

            ≡ Macrosporium antenniforme Berk. & M.A. Curtis [as 'antennaeforme'], N. Amer. Fung.: no. 642 (1875).

Index Fungorum number: IF 208717; Facesoffungi number: FoF 11308, Fig. 1

Description: see Braun et al. (2013) and Videira et al. (2017).

Material examined: see Braun et al. (2013) and Videira et al. (2017).

Fig. 1 Sirosporium antenniforme (IMI 1253, re-drawn from Videira et al. 2017). a Conidiophores emerging from the host leaf. b−d Conidia. Scale bars = 10 µm.

Importance and distribution

Sirosporium diffusum is a fungal pathogen of walnut reported in several countries (Crous and Braun 2003). Sirosporium also delays growth of seedlings in nurseries by defoliation (Poletto et al. 2017). Sirosporium celtidis causes foliar disease of European Hackberry in Spain (Berbegal et al. 2012). Sirosporium antenniforme is associated with degradation of rubber wood logs and leaf litter (Seephueak 2012). Sirosporium sp. has been reported in dry cosmetic powder (Malcolm 1976; Beheravan et al. 2005; Campana et al. 2006). There are 34 Sirosporium epithets in Index Fungorum (2022), but many have been transferred to other genera such as Clasterosporium, Helicoceras, Passalora, Ragnhildiana and Zasmidium. Sirosporium comprises 28 species known on various hosts plant and families such as Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Cannabaceae, Cornaceae, Leguminosae-papilionoideae, Loranthaceae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Phyllanthaceae, Plantaginaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rubiaceae and Rutaceae. Sirosporium has been reported worldwide. Molecular data is important to report species of Sirosporium as they can easily be confused with other genera which can lead to taxonomic confusion.



Beheravan J, Bazzaz F, Malaekeh P. 2005 – Survey of bacteriological contamination of cosmetic creams in Iran (2000). International Journal of Dermatology 44, 482–485.

Berbegal M, Pérez-Sierra A, Armengol J. 2012 – First Report of Sirosporium celtidis Causing a Foliar Disease of European Hackberry in Spain. Plant disease 96, 1826.

Braun U, Nakashima C, Crous PW. 2013 – Cercosporoid fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae) 1. Species on other fungi, Pteridophyta and Gymnospermae. IMA Fungus 4, 265–345.

Campana R, Scesa C, Patrone V, Vittoria E, Baffone W. 2006 – Microbiological study of cosmetic products during their use by consumers: health risk and efficacy of preservative systems. Letters in Applied Microbiology 43, 301–6.

Crous PW, Braun U. 2003 –Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs: 1. Names published in Cercospora and Passalora. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Malcolm SA. 1976 – The Survival of Bacteria in Toiletries. In: Skinner F and Hugo WB (ed.). Inhibition and Inactivation of Vegetative Microbes. London Academic Press, 305–314.

Poletto T, Muniz MFB, Blume E. 2017 – First report of Sirosporium diffusum causing brown leaf spot on Carya illinoinensis in Brazil. Plant Disease 101, 381.

Seephueak P, Petcharat V. 2012 – Fungi Associated with Degradation of Rubber Wood Logs and leaf litter [PhD Thesis] Tropical Agricultural Research Management). Prince of Songkla University. Available at:

Videira SIR, Groenewald JZ, Nakashima C, Braun U, Barreto RW, de Wit PJGM, Crous PW. 2017 – Mycosphaerellaceae - Chaos or clarity? Studies in Mycology 87, 257–421.


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