Mycosphaerellales » Mycosphaerellaceae » Phaeoramularia

Phaeoramularia gomphrenicola

Phaeoramularia gomphrenicola (Speg.) Munt. -Cvetk., Lilloa 30: 209 (1960).

Cercospora gomphrenicola Speg., Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 13(1): 29 (1882).

            Index Fungorum number: IF 336153; Facesoffungi number: FoF 11196, Fig. 1

Description: see Braun et al. (1998); Videira et al. (2017).

Material examined: see Braun et al. (1998); Videira et al. (2017).

Fig. 1 Phaeoramularia gomphrenicola (CPC 23248, holotype, re-drawn from Fig. 35 in Videira et al. 2017). a Leaf spot symptom on the host. b Conidiophores. c Partial conidiophore, conidiogenous cells and conidia. d Catenate conidia. e–g Partial conidiophore, conidiogenous cell and conidia in culture. Scale bars: = 10 μm.

Importance and distribution

There are 136 Phaeoramularia epithets in Index Fungorum (2022), but 109 species have been transferred to other genera such as Catenulocercospora, Cercospora, Chalastospora, Clypeosphaerella, Distocercosporaster, Passalora, Pseudocercospora and Venturia. Phaeoramularia comprises 27 species known on a wide range of hosts such as Acanthus arboreus (Acanthaceae), Acer truncatum (Sapindaceae), Actaea alba (Ranunculaceae), Adenocalymna bracteatum (Bignoniaceae), Antigonon leptopus (Polygonaceae), Barringtonia yunnanensis (Lecythidaceae), Bauhinia bahli (Fabaceae), Chloroxylon sp. (Rutaceae), Cimicifuga foetida (Ranunculaceae), Citrus sp. (Rutaceae), Ipomoea purpurea (Convolvulaceae), Jatropha sp. (Euphorbiaceae), Lonicera sempervirens (Caprifoliaceae), Marsdenia roylei (Apocynaceae). Phaeoramularia is widely distributed including Africa (Nigeria, Tanzania), Asia (China, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal), South America (Argentina) and the United States. Identification of Phaeoramularia must be done based on molecular data due to similarity with other genera.


Quarantine significance

Phaeoramularia is of quarantine concern as it causes fruit and leaf spot disease of Citrus in countries such as Ethiopia (Yesuf 2007).


Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications

Phaeoramularia produces important chemical such as the antifungal aminomalonic acid from Phaeoramularia fusimaculans (Berova et al. 1994). Phaeoramularia species are also used for biological control of crofton weed (Ageratina adenophora) in South Africa (Morris 1989).



Arx JA. von. 1974 – The genera of fungi sporulating in pure culture. 2nd edition. J. Cramer, Berlin.

Berova N, Breinholt J, Jensen GW, Kjaer A et al. 1994 Malonofungin: an antifungal aminomalonic acid from Phaeoramularia fusimaculans. Acta chemica Scandinavica 48, 24051.

Braun U, Melnik VA. 1997 – Cercosporoid fungi from Russia and adjacent countries. Trudy Botanicheskogo Instituta im VL Komarova (St. Petersburg) 20, 1–130.

Braun U. 1998 – A monograph of Cercosporella, Ramularia and allied genera (phytopathogenic hyphomycetes): Vol. 1. IHW-Verlag, Eching, Munich, Germany.

Crous PW, Aptroot A, Kang JC, Braun U, Wingfield MJ. 2000 – The genus Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs. Studies in Mycology 45, 107–121.

Crous PW, Hong L, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ. 2001 – ITS rDNA phylogeny of selected Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Myrtaceae. Mycological Research 105, 425–43.

Videira SIR, Groenewald JZ, Nakashima C, Braun U, Barreto RW, de Wit PJGM, Crous PW. 2017 – Mycosphaerellaceae - Chaos or clarity? Studies in Mycology 87, 257–421.

Yesuf M. 2007 – Distribution and management of Phaeoramularia leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus in Ethiopia. Fruits 62, 99106.



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