Phaeoramularia Munt. -Cvetk., Lilloa 30: 182 (1960).
Index Fungorum number: IF 9314; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08542, 27 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 9 species with molecular data.
Pathogenic, usually forming leaf spots, occasionally almost symptomless. Sexual morph: Unknown. Asexual morph: Mycelium internal, composed of subhyaline to pigmented hyphae, septate, branched, smooth to rough. Stromata almost absent to well developed, pigmented. Conidiophores macronematous, mononematous, in small to large fascicles, rarely solitary, arising from internal hyphae or stromata, emerging through stomata or erumpent through the cuticle, erect, straight, subcylindrical to flexuous, geniculate-sinuous, simple, rarely branched, continuous to septate, pale yellowish green, olivaceous to brown, smooth to rough, thin-walled. Conidiogenous cells integrated, terminal, occasionally intercalary, sometimes conidiophores reduced to a single conidiogenous cell, polyblastic, proliferation sympodial, rarely percurrent, conidiogenous loci thickened and darkened. Conidia catenate, sometimes in branched chains, ellipsoid-ovoid, subcylindrical, fusiform, continuous to euseptate, subhyaline to pigmented, smooth to rough, ends obtuse, truncate or subacute; hila thickened and darkened; conidial secession schizolytic (adapted from Braun et al. 1998).
Type species: Phaeoramularia gomphrenicola (Speg.) Munt. -Cvetk.
Notes: Phaeoramularia is characterised by subhyaline to pigmented hyphae, macronematous, mononematous conidiophores, occasionally intercalary conidiogenous cells, and conidia that are catenate, sometimes in branched chains, ellipsoid-ovoid, subcylindrical or fusiform. Phaeoramularia resembles Mycovellosiella, Stenella, and other allied genera (Arx 1974). Phaeoramularia is also similar to Ramularia in producing catenate conidia but can be differentiated based on the pigmented conidiophores and conidia (Braun 1998). Hormocladium was synonymized with Phaeoramularia (Braun and Melnik 1997). However, Hormocladium is an older name and has priority suggesting that Phaeoramularia may need to be conserved. Hormocladium taxa resemble Phaeoramularia in having catenate conidia but differ in having fusicladium-like conidial scars and hila. Crous et al. (2000) mentioned that Hormocladium should be considered as a synonym of Fusicladium and not Phaeoramularia based on morphology especially catenate conidia. Crous et al. (2001) synonymized Phaeoramularia with Passalora, based on phylogenetic analyses. Videira et al. (2017) resurrected Phaeoramularia in Mycosphaerellaceae based on phylogenetic analyses since P. gomphrenicola clustered distantly from Passalora bacilligera, the type of Passalora. Phaeoramularia is phylogenetically closely related to Ragnhildiana but differs in forming broader conidiophores and conidia, and its conidia can produce new conidia from any part (Videira et al. 2017). Molecular markers to distinguish species of Passalora include LSU and ITS but rpb2 is more reliable and lead to greater resolution in phylogenetic trees. Phaeoramularia is currently a distinct genus in Mycosphaerellaceae. Molecular markers available for Phaeoramularia are ITS, LSU, SSU and RPB2.
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