Muyocopronales » Muyocopronaceae

Muyocopron

Muyocopron Speg., Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 12(3): 113 (1881).

Index Fungorum number: IF 3294; Facesoffungi number: FoF 01887, 48 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 5 species with molecular data.

Saprobic on the surface of leaves or stems, as small black spots, superficial mycelium absent. Sexual morph: Ascomata circular, scattered, flattened, rarely coalescing, superficial, carbonaceous and brittle, black, basal layer slightly developed, with a central irregular ostiole; in section lenticular. Upper wall comprising irregularly arranged radiating cells, cells at margin branching. Peridium comprising two strata, an outer layer composed of black-brown pseudoparenchymatous cells of compact thick-walled textura epidermoidea, an inner layer comprised of light brown cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium of dense, septate pseudo paraphyses which are longer than the asci and immersed in mucilage and inclined towards the centre. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, pedicellate, broadly cylindrical to ovoid, with small ocular chamber. Ascospores 2–3-seriate, ellipsoidal to ovate with obtuse ends, hyaline, 1-celled, with granular appearance. Asexual morph: Unknown (adapted from Hyde et al. 2013).

 Type species: Muyocopron corrientinum Speg.

Notes: Spegazzini (1881) established Muyocopron (as Myiocopron) which has led to a confusion in spelling of the name. Saccardo (1883) re-described Muyocopron and placed the genus in Microthyriaceae. Luttrell (1951) introduced Myiocopronaceae and included all “Hemisphaeriales with the Pleospora Type centrum”. Myiocopronaceae was invalid and Microthyriaceae was used as an earlier name (Eriksson 1981). Arx and Müller (1975) treated Muyocopron in Botryosphaeriaceae, but this treatment was not followed by subsequent authors. Hawksworth et al. (1995), Kirk et al. (2008) and Lumbsch and Huhndorf (2010) treated Muyocopron in Microthyriaceae. Muyocopron is characterised by circular, scattered, flattened ascomata, peridium comprising two layers, one outer layer of thick-walled textura epidermoidea and inner layer of light brown cells of textura angularis, fissitunicate, pedicellate, broadly cylindrical to ovoid asci, with small ocular chamber and ellipsoidal to ovate ascospores with obtuse ends. Muyocopron is a polyphyletic genus. In the phylogenetic analysis of Wu et al. (2011) based on LSU and SSU sequence data, two unnamed strains of Muyocopron grouped with Saccardoella rhizophorae with good statistical support and were not referred to any order or family in Dothideomycetes. Muyocopron resembles members of Microthyriaceae but is phylogenetically distinct (Wu et al. 2011). Muyocopron differs from Microthyrium in that the latter has true thyriothecia with a thin upper wall consisting of parallel cells radiating from the central ostiole and a poorly developed base, septate pseudoparaphyses that form above the cylindro-clavate asci and somewhat long and two-celled ascospores that are frequently ciliate while Muyocopron has ascomata that are not true thyriothecia with a wide upper wall comprising two layers, pseudoparaphyses that are longer than the broadly clavate asci and unicellular ascospores lacking appendages. Hyde et al. (2013) introduced Muyocopronaceae to accommodate Muyocopron. Several authors added new species to Muyocopron based on morphology and phylogeny (Taylor & Hyde 2003, Mapook et al. 2016, 2020, Tibpromma et al. 2016, Hernández-Restrepo et al. 2019, Hongsanan et al. 2020b, Tennakoon et al. 2021). Muyocopron is morphologically and phylogenetically a distinct and type genus of Muyocopronaceae. Molecular markers available for Muyocopron include ITS, LSU, SSU, TEF-1 and RPB2. Several Muyocopron species lack sequence data and may belong to other genera. A generic revision of Muyocopron will help to provide a stable classification.

 

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