Acrogenospora M.B. Ellis, Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes (Kew): 114 (1971).
Index Fungorum number: IF 7036; Facesoffungi number: FoF xx, 13 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 3 species with molecular data.
Saprobic on submerged decaying wood. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Colonies sparse, scattered, black, glistening, hairy. Mycelium mostly immersed, consisting of septate, thin-walled, smooth, hyaline to pale brown hyphae. Conidiophores macronematous, mononematous, solitary, erect, mostly flexuous, septate, slightly tapering towards the apex, mid to dark brown, paler and rounded at the apex, smooth, thick-walled at the base. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, integrated, intercalary, mid brown, cylindrical, with percurrent proliferations, sometimes flexuous at the proliferation. Conidia acrogenous, holoblastic, olive-green to brown, spherical or subspherical, unicellular, smooth and thick-walled, guttulate, truncate at the base (Adapted from Hyde et al. 2019).
Type species: Acrogenospora sphaerocephala (Berk. & Broome) M.B. Ellis
Notes: Acrogenospora was introduced by Ellis (1971) with A. sphaerocephala as type species. Acrogenospora is characterized by sparse, scattered, black, glistening, hairy colonies, macronematous, mononematous, solitary, erect conidiophores, monoblastic, integrated, intercalary, mid brown, cylindrical conidiogenous cells and acrogenous, holoblastic, olive-green to brown, spherical or subspherical, unicellular conidia. Acrogenospora differs from Minutisphaera in that the latter has erumpent to superficial, pseudothecioid or apothecioid ascomata with ostioles, a thin-walled peridium and clavate, fusiform to ellipsoidal, multiguttulate ascospores with a gelatinous sheath while Acrogenospora has hysterothecial ascomata with thick-walls, a conspicuous sunken slit and 1-celled, pedicellate, hyaline or moderately pigmented ascospores. Acrogenospora resembles Monotosporella in having macronematous, mononematous conidiophores, monoblastic conidiogenous cells and brown, sphaerical, obovoid to ellipsoidal conidia but differs in that Acrogenospora has unicellular conidia, while Monotosporella has septate conidia and both these genera are phylogenetically distinct. Mason (1941) confirmed the relationship between A. megalospora and Farlowiella armichaeliana based on cultural studies. Ellis (1971) mentioned the asexual morph of F. carmichaeliana as A. carmichaeliana. Ellis (1972) added two other species A. setiformis and F. australis in Acrogenospora. Ellis (1972) considered A. australis as the asexual morph of F. australis based on morphology. Hughes (1978) added two additional species, A. gigantospora and A. novae-zelandiae. Goh et al. (1998) provided a taxonomic revision of Acrogenospora, accepted eight species, provided two new combinations, two new species and gave descriptions, illustrations and a key to species. Goh et al. (1998) accepted these two asexual morphs of Farlowiella and synonymized A. megalospora under F. carmichaeliana and A. altissima under F. australis. Rossman et al. (2015) mentioned Farlowiella as a synonym of Acrogenospora but the latter name has priority based on “one name one fungus” rule. Jayasiri et al. (2018) introduced the new family Acrogenosporaceae based on phylogenetic analysis of LSU, SSU, RPB2 and TEF1 gene of nine strain to accommodate Acrogenospora and confirmed Farlowiella as a synonym of Acrogenospora. Hyde et al. (2019) provided ITS, LSU and RPB2 sequence data for a reference specimen A. sphaerocephala under the code MFLU 18-1130. Bao et al. (2019) added nine species of Acrogenospora from China based on phylogeny derived from DNA sequence analyses of a combined LSU, SSU, TEF1α, and RPB2 sequence data and provided an updated account of Acrogenospora. Acrogenospora is morphologically and phylogenetically a distinct and type genus of Acrogenosporaceae, Molecular markers available for Acrogenospora include LSU, SSU, ITS, RPB2 and TEF-1.
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