Hysterobrevium E. Boehm & C.L. Schoch, in Boehm et al., Stud. Mycol. 64: 62 (2010).
Index Fungorum number: IF 515329; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08056, 6 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 6 species with molecular data.
Saprobic on host. Sexual morph: Hysterothecia navicular, with a prominent longitudinal slit, variable with acuminate to obtuse ends, linear to flexuous, solitary to densely gregarious, surface usually longitudinally striate, sometimes erect, superficial, almost stipitate, to erumpent and partially embedded in substrate, the latter especially when gregarious. Asci bitunicate, cylindrical to clavate. Ascospores pigmented or hyaline dictyospores, usually less than 25 μm long, constricted at least at the median septum. If hyaline to pale-yellow, then typically associated with a gelatinous sheath when young, dissipating with age. If pigmented then lightly so, transparent clear brown, walls smooth; ascospores generally ovoid to obovoid, with either obtuse or acuminate ends, 3–4(–6) transverse septa, and 1–2 longitudinal septa, these mostly associated with the two central cells, but highly variable and sometimes at oblique angles in the end cells. Asexual morph: Unknown (adapted from Boehm et al. 2009).
Type species: Hysterobrevium mori (Schwein.) E. Boehm & C.L. Schoch
Notes: Hysterobrevium is characterised by navicular hysterothecia, cylindrical to clavate asci and hyaline to pale-yellow ascospores surrounded by a gelatinous sheath when immature. In the phylogenetic analysis of Boehm et al. (2009), Hysterobrevium mori clustered in two separate clades. In one clade, H. mori isolates clustered with six geographically varied isolates of H. smilacis. Hysterobrevium mori and H. smilacis morphologically resemble each other in having similar shape, size and degree of septation but differ in absence of pigmentation and the presence of a gelatinous sheath in H. smilacis. H. mori and H. smilacis were previously accommodated in two different genera, Hysterographium and Gloniopsis, and the phylogenetic analysis of Boehm et al. (2009) proved that in fact these two species are closely related to each other. Lohman (1933) earlier reported an Aposphaeria asexual morph for both H. mori (as Hg. mori) and H. smilacis (as Gloniopsis gerardiana) and mentioned that both these species are similar in culture. Hence, both species were accommodated in a new genus Hysterobrevium based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence. Later, several authors added new species to Hysterobrevium (Mathiassen and Granmo 1995; Jayasiri et al. 2018; Hyde et al. 2020). Hysterobrevium is morphologically and phylogenetically a distinct genus in Hysteriaceae. A combined analysis of LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF-1 is ideal to introduce or distinguish species of Hysterobrevium. Molecular markers available for Hysterobrevium are ITS, LSU, SSU, RPB2 and TEF-1.
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