Encephalographa A. Massal., Geneac. lich. (Verona): 13 (1854).
Saprobic on host. Sexual morph: Black, superficial, lirelliform, saxicolous ascomata densely aggregated in compact clusters, with a disk reduced to a narrow slit, possibly lichenized. Exciple massive, dark brown to black lateral and basal. Hymenium a non-amyloid. Paraphyses dense net of branched and anastomosed. Asci clavate, thick-walled, 8-spored asci, wall apically thickened, with a distinct ocular chamber, I– and K/I–. Ascospores ellipsoid, 1-septate, smooth to finely ornamented, hyaline to brownish ascospores that are constricted near the septum, with a thin perispore. Asexual morph: Unknown (Adapted from Renobales and Aguirre 1990; Ertz and Paul Diederich 2015).
Type species: Encephalographa cerebrina (DC.) A. Massal.
Notes: Encephalographa was introduced by Massalongo (1854) with E. cerebrina as type species. Encephalographa is characterized by black, superficial, lirelliform, saxicolous ascomata, non-amyloid hymenium, clavate, thick-walled, 8-spored asci and ellipsoid, 1-septate, smooth to finely ornamented, hyaline to brownish ascospores. Renobales and Aguirre (1990) placed Encephalographa in Hysteriaceae. Ertz and Diederich (2015) indicated that the type species Encephalographa elisae, belongs to Melaspileaceae in Eremithallales. Boehm et al. (2009) first sequenced the nuSSU and nuLSU of E. elisae and showed that it does not reside within Hysteriaceae as postulated by Renobales and Aguirre (1990). In the phylogenetic analysis of Boehm et al. (2009), E. elisae clustered as a sister taxon of Pleosporomycetidae and Dothideomycetidae with Arthoniomycetes as outgroup. Encephalographa differs from Melaspilea in having dichotomously branched, laterally anastomosed, lirelliform ascomata with a longitudinal sulcus. Encephalographa is morphologically and phylogenetically a distinct genus in Melaspileaceae.