Dothideales » Dothideales, genus incertae sedis » Hormonema

Hormonema dematioides

Hormonema dematioides Lagerb. & Melin, in Lagerberg, Lundberg & Melin, Svensk Skogsvårdsförening Tidskr. 25: 219 (1927).

            Index Fungorum number: IF 262957; Facesoffungi number: FoF 11109, Fig. 1

Description: see Bills et al. (2004).

Material examined: see Bills et al. (2004).

Fig. 1 Hormonema dematioides (E99156, re-drawn from Fig. 2 in Filip et al. 2003). Young hypha, with each cell producing conidia by one short papilla. Scale bar = 10 μm.

Importance and distribution

Although there are nine Hormonema epithets in Index Fungorum (2022), several species have been transferred to other genera namely Aureobasidium, Dothiora and Sydowia. Hormonema comprises seven species. Hormonema carpetanum was isolated from surface of granite in Europe (Spain), H. macrosporum was reported from Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidaei) in North European Russia, H. merioides was found on needles of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Pinaceae) in North America (Canada), H. dematioides was reported on wood of Coniferae in Europe (Sweden), H. schizolunatum was isolated from leaf of Salvia canariensis f. candidissima in Africa (Canary Islands) and H. viticola was reported from fruit of Vitis vinifera in Asia (Malaysia). Hormonema can cause fatal peritonitis in humans (Shin et al. 1998).


Industrial relevance and applications

Hormonema is useful in biotechnological applications such as fermentable sugars production, biopulping and biobleaching due to their ability to degrade lignin (Fillat et al. 2016).


Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications

Hormonema produces several chemicals such as enfumafungi, a hemiacetal triterpene glycoside produced in fermentations of Hormonema sp. (Bills et al. 2004), enzymes such as laccase (Fillat et al. 2016), hormonemate, a cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing compound (Filip et al. 2003), limonene-3-hydroxylase (Martín-Sampedro et al. 2017), preussomerin D (Polishook et al. 1993), rugulosin which shows activity against survival of budworm (Calhoun et al. 1992) amongst others.




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Calhoun L, Findlay J, Miller J, Whitney N. 1992 – Metabolites toxic to spruce budworm from balsam fir needle endophytes. Mycological Research 96, 281–286.

de Hoog GS, Yurlova NA. 1994 – Conidiogenesis, nutritional physiology and taxonomy of Aureobasidium and Hormonema. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 65, 41–54.

Filip P, Weber R, Sterner O, Anke T. 2003 – Hormonemate, a New Cytotoxic and Apoptosis-Inducing Compound from the Endophytic Fungus Hormonema dematioides. I. Identification of the Producing Strain and Isolation and Biological Properties of Hormonemate. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C, Journal of Biosciences 58, 54–552.

Fillat U, Martín-Sampedro R, Macaya-Sanz D, Martin J, Ibarra D, Martinez MJ, Eugenio M. 2016 – Screening of eucalyptus wood endophytes for laccase activity. Process Biochemistry 51, 589–598.

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Martín-Sampedro R, López-Linares J, Fillat U, Gea-Izquierdo G, Ibarra D, Castro E, Eugenio M. 2017 – Endophytic Fungi as Pretreatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Olive Tree Pruning. BioMed Research International, 1–10.

Polishook JD, Dombrowski AW, Tsou NN, Salituro GM, Curotto JE. 1993 – Preussomerin D from the Endophyte Hormonema Dematioides. Mycologia 85, 1, 62–64.

Rossman AY, Crous PW, Hyde KD, Hawksworth DL et al. 2015 – Recommended names for pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes. IMA Fungus 6, 507–523.

Shin JH, Lee SK, Suh SP, Ryang DW, Kim NH, Rinaldi MG, Sutton DA. 1998 Fatal Hormonema dematioides peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: criteria for organism identification and review of other known fungal etiologic agents. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36, 2157–2163.

Sutton BC. 1980 – The Coelomycetes. Fungi imperfecti with pycnidia, acervuli and stromata. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, pp 1–696.

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