Hormonema dematioides Lagerb. & Melin, in Lagerberg, Lundberg & Melin, Svensk Skogsvårdsförening Tidskr. 25: 219 (1927).
Index Fungorum number: IF 262957; Facesoffungi number: FoF 11109, Fig. 1
Description: see Bills et al. (2004).
Material examined: see Bills et al. (2004).
Fig. 1 Hormonema dematioides (E99156, re-drawn from Fig. 2 in Filip et al. 2003). Young hypha, with each cell producing conidia by one short papilla. Scale bar = 10 μm.
Importance and distribution
Although there are nine Hormonema epithets in Index Fungorum (2022), several species have been transferred to other genera namely Aureobasidium, Dothiora and Sydowia. Hormonema comprises seven species. Hormonema carpetanum was isolated from surface of granite in Europe (Spain), H. macrosporum was reported from Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidaei) in North European Russia, H. merioides was found on needles of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Pinaceae) in North America (Canada), H. dematioides was reported on wood of Coniferae in Europe (Sweden), H. schizolunatum was isolated from leaf of Salvia canariensis f. candidissima in Africa (Canary Islands) and H. viticola was reported from fruit of Vitis vinifera in Asia (Malaysia). Hormonema can cause fatal peritonitis in humans (Shin et al. 1998).
Industrial relevance and applications
Hormonema is useful in biotechnological applications such as fermentable sugars production, biopulping and biobleaching due to their ability to degrade lignin (Fillat et al. 2016).
Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications
Hormonema produces several chemicals such as enfumafungi, a hemiacetal triterpene glycoside produced in fermentations of Hormonema sp. (Bills et al. 2004), enzymes such as laccase (Fillat et al. 2016), hormonemate, a cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing compound (Filip et al. 2003), limonene-3-hydroxylase (Martín-Sampedro et al. 2017), preussomerin D (Polishook et al. 1993), rugulosin which shows activity against survival of budworm (Calhoun et al. 1992) amongst others.
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Bills GF, Collado J, Ruibal C, Peláez F, Platas G. 2004 – Hormonema carpetanum sp. nov., a new lineage of dothideaceous black yeasts from Spain. Studies in Mycology 50, 149–15. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gerald-Bills/publication/285864857_Hormonema_carpetanum_sp_ nov_a_new_lineage_of_dothideaceous_black_yeasts_from_Spain/links/5748b35408ae5f7899b9da53/Hor monema-carpetanum-sp-nov-a-new-lineage-of-dothideaceous-black-yeasts-from-Spain.pdf
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Filip P, Weber R, Sterner O, Anke T. 2003 – Hormonemate, a New Cytotoxic and Apoptosis-Inducing Compound from the Endophytic Fungus Hormonema dematioides. I. Identification of the Producing Strain, and Isolation and Biological Properties of Hormonemate. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences 58, 54–552. https://doi.org/10.1515/znc-2003-7-817
Fillat U, Martín-Sampedro R, Macaya-Sanz D, Martin J, Ibarra D, Martinez MJ, Eugenio M. 2016 – Screening of eucalyptus wood endophytes for laccase activity. Process Biochemistry 51, 589–598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2016.02.006
Hermanides-Nijhof EJ. 1977 – Aureobasidium and allied genera. Studies in Mycology 15, 141–222.
Hongsanan S, Hyde KD, Phookamsak R, Wanasinghe DN et al. 2020a – Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Mycosphere 11,1553–2107. https://www.mycosphere.org/pdf/MYCOSPHERE_11_1_13.pdf
Humphries Z, Seifert KA, Hirooka Y, Visagie CM. 2017 – A new family and genus in Dothideales for Aureobasidium-like species isolated from house dust. IMA Fungus 8, 299–315. https://doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2017.08.02.05
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