Capnodiales » Metacapnodiaceae


Metacapnodium Speg., Physis, Rev. Soc. Arg. Cienc. Nat. 4(no. 17): 288 (1918).

Index Fungorum number: IF 3137; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06843, 5 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), no molecular data available.

Foliar epiphytes as typical “sooty moulds” comprising black mycelium masses covering the twigs as subicula. Sexual morph: Mycelium comprising dense, brown to dark brown, friable, spongy, septate hyphae, which are deeply constricted at the septa, thick-walled, moniliform, and anastomosing. Ascomata less than 200 μm diam, immersed in the subiculum, broadly ellipsoidal or globose, with numerous, septate, hypha-like appendages. Peridium comprising 3–4 layers of cells forming a textura angularis, inner cells hyaline to pale brown, outer layer cells brown to dark brown, especially at the outside. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, ellipsoidal, short pedicellate, ocular chamber not observed. Ascospores bi- or tri-seriate, ellipsoidal with somewhat conical end cells, 3-septate, some slightly constricted at septa, thick-walled, brown to dark brown, rather dark brown at the septa, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: named as capnophialophora. Phialides develop on ascospores and moniliform hyphae. Phialides occurring singly or in pairs on hyphae or on apex of ascospores, globose, pale brown to brown, with collarette, hyaline; conidia not observed (Adapted from Hyde et al. 2013).


            Type species: Metacapnodium juniperi (W. Phillips & Plowr.) Speg.


Notes: Metacapnodium is characterised by friable, spongy, septate hyphae, broadly ellipsoidal or globose ascomata, ellipsoidal, short pedicellate asci and ellipsoidal with somewhat conical end cells, 3-septate ascospores. The asexual morph is characterised by phialides that develop on ascospores and moniliform hyphae and globose, pale brown to brown phialides but there is no report of conidia (Spegazzini 1918; Sivanesan 1984). Hughes and Seifert (2012) reported that all species of Metacapnodium produce capnophialophora phialides while some taxa may produce other asexual characters termed as symopodioconidia (Capnobotrys), Capnosporium, Capnocybe. Hughes (1981) described seven Metacapnodium species from New Zealand with Capnophialophora and Capnosporium states. There is no culture from Metacapnodium species. Hughes (1966) mentioned that Capnocybe fraserae is the asexual morph of Limacinia fraserae and moved C. fraserae to Metacapnodium. Hyde et al. (2013) re-examined Metacapnodium spongiosum from Spain and reported both M. spongiosum and the asexual morph of C. spongiosa on the same specimen and reduced Capnocybe under the older name Metacapnodium. Metacapnodium is a distinct and the type genus of Metacapnodiaceae but molecular data is needed to confirm the taxonomic classification of Metacapnodium.


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