Capnodium Mont., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3 11: 233 (1849).
Index Fungorum number: IF 809; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06944, 83 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2021), 11 species with molecular data.
Saprobic on sugary exudates from insects growing on the surface of leaves, fruits, stems and other non-plant objects. Thallus a loose or dense network of pale brown, superficial hyphae or a thick pseudoparenchymatous stroma, with sexual and asexual morphs often growing together. Sexual morph: Ascomata superficial on mycelium of thallus, brown to dark brown or black, globose to ellipsoidal, short-stalked or sessile, ostiolate at maturity, scattered or in groups, without setae. Peridium comprising dark brown to pale brown, thick-walled cells forming a textura angularis. Hamathecium lacking pseudoparaphyses. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, clavate, ovoid or saccate, apedicellate, lacking an ocular chamber. Ascospores overlapping bi-seriate, brown, oblong or ovoid and some reniform, transversely septate with one or more vertical septa or without vertical septa. Asexual morph: “Polychaeton” spp. Pycnidia elongate, often with long stalks, dark brown. Ostiole at apex of pycnidia with hyphae continued upwards to the tapered neck, terminating in an ostiole which is surrounded by dull hyphal round ends. Conidia hyaline, 1-celled (Adapted from Hyde et al. 2013).
Type species: Capnodium salicinum Mont.
Notes: The current name for the type specimen, Capnodium salicinum is C. citri. Capnodium is characterised by a loose or dense network of pale brown hyphae on the thallus, superficial, brown to dark brown or black ascomata, clavate, ovoid or saccate asci and brown, oblong or ovoid ascospores. Capnodium differs from other genera in Capnodiaceae in having Polychaeton-like asexual morph with pycnidia lacking a basal bulbous part. Hyde et al. (2013) provided an account of Capnodium and illustrated the sexual morph based on C. tiliae Berk. & Desm. The asexual morph was described by Chomnunti et al. (2011) based on C. coartatum. Capnodium is the sexual morph of Polychaeton, and the former was chosen and conserved under the “1F1N” by Chomnunti et al. (2011). Capnodium is a distinct and well-supported genus in Capnodiaceae.