Antennulariella Woron., Trudy Byuro Prikl. Bot. 8(6): 771 (1915).
Index Fungorum number: IF 221; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06951, 5 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 1 species with molecular data (doubtful placement).
Foliar epiphytes living as sooty molds on insect exudates. Mycelium brown to dark brown, thin to dense, cylindrical, irregular, septate, slightly constricted at the septa, smooth walled. Sexual morph: Ascomata developing from repeated divisions of hyphae, dark brown, sessile, with a pseudoparenchymatous wall, sub globose to globose, with a robust stalk, with long, cylindrical, hyphal appendages, wide at the base, tapering to the apex, ostiolate at maturity, terminally or laterally on hyphae. Peridium thin-walled, cells brown to pale brown, of textura angularis. Hamathecium aparaphysate. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical, clavate to ellipsoidal. Ascospores overlapping, hyaline,uniseptate, with the upper cell slightly shorter and broader than the lower one, rounded at both ends. Asexual morphs: Coelomycetous, antennariella like pycnidial, terminal on long stalk, or lateral or intercalary, dark brown with pseudoparenchymatous walls, subglobose to ovoid, with ostioles. Conidia ellipsoidal, hyaline, one-celled; hyphomycetous, Capnodendron-like, mycelium superficial, scattered to dense, pale brown to dark brown, smooth-walled, cylindrical, branched, upright hyphae, straight or branched, septate, long, tapering to the apex. Some upright hyphae and their branches may become conidiogenous cells. Conidia in simple chains, subglobose, or ellipsoidal to cylindrical, brown to dark brown, with or without septa, slightly constricted at the septa, various lengths in multiseptateconidia, with a rounded or slight scar at one or both ends (adapted from Hyde et al. 2013).
Type species: Antennulariella fuliginosa Woron
Notes: Antennulariella was introduced by Woronichin (1915) with A. fuliginosa as type species. This genus is characterised by brown to dark brown mycelium, septate, slightly constricted at the septa. The sexual morph is characterised by subglobose to globose ascomata, brown to pale brown peridium of textura angularis, cylindrical, clavate to ellipsoidal asci and hyaline,uniseptate ascospores. The asexual morph is characterised by dark brown pycnidia and ellipsoidal, hyaline conidia and was previously known as Antennariella. Antennariella has been synonymized under Antennulariella due to the concept of one name for one fungus (Hyde et al. 2013). Only one species Antennulariella placitae (= Antennariella placitae) has sequence data in GenBank. Hyde et al. (2013) synonymized Capnodendron under Antennulariella based on the species Antennulariella batistae which is characterised by a hyphomycetous synasexual morph Capnodendron trichomericola, the type of the genus Capnodendron. Hughes (1976) linked Achaetobotrys with Antennariella while Hughes (2000) considered Capnodendron and Antennariella as synasexual morphs of Achaetobotrys batistae. An account of Antennulariella is provided in Hyde et al. (2013) and Hongsanan et al. (2020a). Antennulariella differs from other genera in Antennulariellaceae in having conidia and conidiophores which anastomose with each other and the asexual morph is found attached to ascostromata with flexuous hyphal appendages (Hughes 2000). Antennulariella is a distinct and type genus of Antennulariellaceae but molecular data is needed to confirm the placement of the species within the genus.
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