Botryosphaeriales » Planistromellaceae


Kellermania Ellis & Everh., J. Mycol. 1(12):153 (1885).

Index Fungorum number: IF 8668; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06690, 23 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 18 species with molecular data.

Saprobic on host. Sexual morph: Ascostromata subepidermal, immersed, becoming erumpent, solitary to gregarious, multilocular, subglobose to ovoid, dark brown to black, thick-walled. Cells of ascostromata composed of several layers of dark brown cells, textura angularis. The upper part of the ascostromata comprises columns of elongated cells attached with the host epidermis. Locules ovoid to globose, the collapsed locule producing conidia or spermatia or both, periphysate ostiole. Peridium of locules composed of a few layers of hyaline to light brown flattened cells. Hamathecium lacking pseudoparaphyses when mature, interascal cells abundant, filamentous. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, clavate to nearly cylindrical, with a short knob-like pedicel and an ocular chamber. Ascospores overlapping 1-2-seriate, ellipsoid and slightly curved with bluntly rounded ends, hyaline, 1-2-septate, guttulate. Asexual morph: Conidiomata subepidermal, dark, immersed, erumpent by remaining at the rim covered by epidermis, solitary to gregarious, unilocular, ostiolate. Conidiomata walls comprising several layers with cells of textura angularis, the outer layers composed of 6-12 layers of dark, thick-walled cell, lighter toward the inner layers composed of 2-3 layers of hyaline cells. Conidiogenesis holoblastic. Conidiophores absent. Macroconidiogenous cells short cylindric, hyaline, smooth, each forming acrogenous holoblastic conidia. Macroconidia narrowly ellipsoid-cylindric, the base bluntly rounded, the apex more pointed and often surrounded by an appendage, mostly 2-septate. Microconidiogenous cells arising on the upper wall of conidioma and in ostiolar channel. Microconidia more or less cylindric, aseptate, smooth-walled, hyaline. Spermatia formed in the central locule of a stroma or in the locule in the vertical column of the lateral walls of some conidiomata. Spermatogenous cells discrete or integrated on one-celled conidiophores, phialidic, cylindric to elongate-conical. Spermatia bacillary, hyaline, smooth (Adapted from Monkai et al. 2013).


Type species: Kellermania yuccigena Ellis & Everh.


Notes: Kellermania is characterised by subepidermal, immersed ascostromata, ovoid to globose locules, clavate to nearly cylindrical asci and ellipsoid and slightly curved with bluntly rounded ends hyaline, 1–2-septate ascospores. The asexual morph is characterised by subepidermal, dark, immersed conidiomata, short cylindric, hyaline, smooth macroconidiogenous cells, narrowly ellipsoid-cylindric macroconidia, more or less cylindric, aseptate, smooth-walled, hyaline microconidia, phialidic, cylindric to elongate-conical spermatogenous cells and bacillary, hyaline, smooth spermatia. Sutton (1968) interpreted the stipes of the conidia described by Ellis and Everhart (1885) as apical appendages and reserved Kellermania for species characterised by simple, blastic conidiophores, septate, hyaline, and appendage-bearing conidia and sclerotioid, pycnidial conidiomata and excluded several species of Kellermania to other genera. Morgan-Jones et al. (1972) reviewed the concepts of the two Kellermania taxa accepted by Sutton (1968), included two novel species with or lacking one apical conidial appendage. Sutton (1977) synonymized Septoplaca with Piptarthron based on its occurrence on Yucca (Asparagaceae) but could not decide which species was represented by the type, S. limbata. Sutton (1980) transferred S. limbata to Piptarthron limbatum and later as P. yuccae and accepted Alpakesa, Kellermania, and Piptarthron for species characterised by multiple, one, or no conidial appendages, accordingly. Nag Raj (1993) treated Alpakesa as a synonym of Kellermania and provided an account of the unstudied or excluded taxa. Ramaley (1991, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1998) studied taxa in Kellermania and provided description of the sexual morph, added new species and revised numerous coelomycetous taxa. Ramaley (1993) revised Planistromella, the sexual state of Kellermania, and reported that it morphologically resembles Planistroma but differs in having septate ascospores. Ramaley (1993) did not synonymize the asexual and sexual states into Planistroma with Kellermania asexual morphs. Ramaley (1995) introduced five new species with both sexual and asexual morphs and provided a key to the species of Kellermania and Piptarthron. Planistromella torsifolium was the first sexual morph species characterised by Alpakesa-type conidia which provided further evidence that Alpakesa is a synonym of Kellermania (Ramaley 1995). Barr (1996) introduced Planistromellaceae to accommodate species characterised by ascostromata, interthecial tissues, and schizogenously formed, periphysate ostioles and accepted Kellermania in that family. Ramaley (1998) recognized two additional teleomorphic taxa linked with known species of Kellermania and described another unidentified taxon with both Piptarthron and Planistroma morphs. Planistroma kellermaniae characterised by aseptate ascospores, was linked to the asexual morphic Kellermania nolinae, a species which has Alpakesa-type conidia and this created further confusion in generic delineation (Ramaley 1998). Kellermania yuccifoliorum (= Planistromella yuccifoliorum), the type species of Kellermania can be distinguished from other genera in Planistromellaceae in having 1−2 septate ascospores (Ramaley 1993, Barr 1996, Monkai et al. 2013). Minnis et al. (2012) illustrated other species of Kellermania and provided a monograph of the genus Kellermania together with a phylogeny based on SSU, ITS, LSU, and RPB1 sequence data. Minnis et al. (2012) synonymized Piptarthron, Planistroma and Planistromella under Kellermania based on evidence of their phylogenetic study. In the phylogenetic investigation of Monkai et al. (2013) based on LSU and ITS sequence data, type of Kellermania and two other strains Kellermania anomala (CBS 132218) and K. nolinifoliorum (CBS 131718) clustered together with the “Planistromella” sexual states. Monkai et al. (2013) followed Minnis et al. (2012) and treated Piptarthron as a synonym of Kellermania as the separation of genera has no statistical support with no apparent morphological resemblances. Kellermania is morphologically and phylogenetically a distinct genus in Planistromellaceae but the species which lack sequence data need revision as they might belong to other genera. Molecular markers available for Kellermania are ITS, LSU, SSU, BTUB, RPB2 and TEF-1.


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