Neocylindroseptoria Thambug. & K.D. Hyde, in Thambugala et al., Fungal Diversity 68: 125 (2014)
Associated with leaf spot. Sexual morph: Unknown. Asexual morph: Conidiomata pycnidial, globose, black, erumpent, separate, with black crusty outer layer of cells, with central ostiole; wall of 3–6 layers of brown cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells monophialidic, sometimes polyphialidic, lining the inner cavity, hyaline, smooth, ampulliform, proliferating percurrently (inconspicuous) or with periclinal thickening at apex (also occurring as solitary loci on superficial hyphae surrounding pycnidia). Conidia cylindrical, mostly straight, rarely slightly curved, hyaline, smooth-walled, apex subobtuse, base truncate, guttulate, aseptate (Quaedvlieg et al. 2013; Thambugala et al. 2014).
Type species: Neocylindroseptoria pistaciae (Quaedvl., Verkley & Crous) Thambug. & K.D. Hyde
Notes: Neocylindroseptoria is characterised by pycnidial, globose, black, erumpent conidiomata, monophialidic or polyphialidic conidiogenous cells, and cylindrical, mostly straight, guttulate, aseptate conidia. Neocylindroseptoria pistaciae, previously known as Cylindroseptoria pistaciae was introduced by Quaedvlieg et al. (2013) and accommodated in Cylindroseptoria based on the pycnidial conidiomata. In the phylogenetic analysis of Thambugala et al. (2014), C. pistaciae formed a distinct lineage in Dothideaceae separate from Cylindroseptoria species. Hence, Neocylindroseptoria was introduced based on phylogenetic evidence. Neocylindroseptoria is a distinct genus in Dothideaceae but more taxa are needed to verify the taxonomic status of the genus. Molecular markers available for Neocylindroseptoria are ITS, LSU, BTUB, RPB2 and TEF-1.