Macrophomina philippinensis Petr., Annls mycol. 21(3/4): 314 (1923).
Index Fungorum number: IF 274223; Facesoffungi number: FoFxxx, Fig. 1
Description: see Liu et al. (2012); Phillips et al. (2008, 2013); Hyde et al. (2013); Slippers et al. (2013); Dissanayake et al. (2016).
Material examined: see Liu et al. (2012); Phillips et al. (2008, 2013); Hyde et al. (2013); Slippers et al. (2013); Dissanayake et al. (2016).
Fig. 1. Macrophomina philippinensis (re-drawn from Figs. 1, 2 in Mukerji and Manoharachary 2010). a Pycnidia. b Conidiogenous cells. c Development of conidia from conidiogenous cells. d Mature conidia. e Single celled conidia. f Conidia stained with laco fuschsin. g Conidia stained with Leifson’s stain. h Conidia showing various stages on eversion when stained in 2% erythrocin in ammonia.
Importance and role
Importance of genus to ecosystem
Macrophomina comprises generalist soil-borne fungus causing diseases such as stem and root rot, charcoal rot and seedling blight causing decreased crop yield (Marquez et al. 2021).
Industrial relevance and applications
Macrophomina is useful in pharmaceutical or food industry as M. phaseoli produces beta-galactosidase and N-bromosuccinimide.
Macrophomina phaseolina causes charcoal rot disease of Urdbean and cause great economic losses hence is of quarantine significance (Banaras et al. 2018).
Biochemical importance of the genus, chemical diversity or applications
Macrophomina phaseolina form sclerotial exudates (Reddy et al. 1989). Sugiura et al. (1981) reported beta-galactosidase and N-bromosuccinimide from Macrophomina phaseoli. Macrophomina phaseolina produces a 12-membered macrolide called phaseolide A (Morishita et al. 2020).
Diversity of the genus
Macrophomina comprises four species known on root of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), leaves of Phaseolus (Fabaceae) and Arachis hypogaea (Fabaceae). Macrophomina is reported from Bahia, Italy, Senegal and Fujian. Macrophomina may comprise many more species that warrants further investigation.