Lasiodiplodia Ellis & Everh., Bot. Gaz. 21: 92 (1896).
Index Fungorum number: IF 8708; Facesoffungi number: FoF 00151, 64 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 35 species with molecular data.
Mycelium immersed or superficial, branched, septate, dark brown. Sexual morph: Ascomata eustromatic, dark brown to black, uniloculate with thick pseudoparenchymatic wall, ostiolate, embedded in the substrate and partially erumpent at maturity. Pseudoparaphyses hyaline, septate. Asci bitunicate with thick endotunica and well-developed apical chamber, clavate, stipitate, 8-spored. Ascospores irregularly biseriate, initially hyaline, becoming dark brown, aseptate. Asexual morph: Conidiomata stromatic, immersed or superficial, separate or aggregated and confluent, globose, dark brown, uni- or multilocular; wall of dark brown, thick-walled textura angularis, paler and thinner-walled towards the conidiogenous region, often with dark brown superficial hyphae over the surface. Ostiole central, single, papillate. Conidiophores often reduced to conidiogenous cells, if present hyaline, simple, sometimes septate, rarely branched, cylindrical, arising from the inner layers of cells lining the locules. Conidiogenous cells hyaline, smooth, cylindrical to subobpyriform, holoblastic, discrete, determinate or indeterminate and proliferating percurrently with one or two distinct annellations, or proliferating at the same level giving rise to periclinal thickenings, formed from cells lining the inner wall of the conidiomata. Conidia hyaline when young, later becoming medianly 1-euseptate, dark brown with longitudinal striations, thick-walled, oblong to ellipsoid, straight, broadly rounded at the apex, base truncate. Paraphyses hyaline, cylindrical, septate (Adapted from Phillips et al. 2013).
Type species: Lasiodiplodia tubericola Ellis & Everh.
Notes: Lasiodiplodia was introduced by Ellis (1894) with L. tubericola as the type species. Lasiodiplodia is characterized by eustromatic, dark brown to black, uniloculate ascomata, clavate, stipitate, 8-spored asci and dark brown, aseptate ascospores. The asexual morph is characterized by stromatic, immersed or superficial conidiomata, single, papillate central ostiole, hyaline, smooth, cylindrical to subobpyriform, holoblastic conidiogenous cells, initially hyaline, later becoming medianly 1-euseptate, dark brown conidia. Since Ellis did not fully describe Lasiodiplodia, Clendenin (1896) provided a description of the genus and the species. Griffin and Maublanc (1909) suggested the placement of Botryodiplodia theobromae in Lasiodiplodia based on the pycnidial paraphyses. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is considered as the type species of Lasiodiplodia since the epithet theobromae (1892) is older than tubericola (1896) Patouillard (1892) and Clendenin (1896) did not mention any type or other specimens of the genus in their work. Denman et al. (2000) suggested that Lasiodiplodia might be a synonym of Diplodia. Pavlic et al. (2004) could not find the type specimen, or other specimens from the original hosts or locations. In the phylogenetic analyses of Zhou and Stanosz (2001), Slippers et al. (2004) and Phillips et al. (2008), Lasiodiplodia forms a distinct lineage from Diplodia hence these two genera are phylogenetically distinct. Lasiodiplodia morphologically differs from Diplodia in having striations on the conidia which is lacking in the latter genus. Lasiodiplodia resembles Neodeightonia in having striate conidia but differs in having conidiomatal paraphyses which is absent in the latter genus. Lasiodiplodia differs from Barriopsis in that the latter has striate conidia even on immature, hyaline conidia while this is not the case for Lasiodiplodia. Members of Lasiodiplodia are delineated based on conidial morphology, sizes and morphology of the paraphyses. Molecular markers for Lasiodiplodia include LSU, SSU, ITS, RPB2, BTUB and TEF-1. A combined analysis of ITS and TEF-1 provide better resolution to delineate species. Several authors added new species to Lasiodiplodia (Alves et al. 2008; Pavlic et al. 2008; Phillips et al. 2008, 2013; Abdollahzadeh et al. 2010; Liu et al. 2012; Hyde et al. 2013; Yan et al. 2013; Slippers et al. 2013; Linaldeddu et al. 2015; Dissanayake et al. 2016; Tennakoon et al. 2016; Doilom et al. 2017; Gomdola et al. 2020). Lasiodiplodia is morphologically and phylogenetically a well-supported genus in Botryosphaeriaceae but statistical support of inner branches is usually low. Reassessment of the species in Lasiodiplodia using more gene loci is needed to provide a stable phylogeny.
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