Botryosphaeriales » Aplosporellaceae

Aplosporella

Aplosporella Speg., Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 10(4): 157 (1880).

= Bagnisiella Speg., Anal. Soc. cient. argent. 10(4): 146 (1880).

Index Fungorum number: IF 7191; Facesoffungi number: FoF 01427, 223 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2022), 10 species with molecular data.

Saprobic on dead stems. Sexual morph: Ascostromata arising singly or in small groups, sessile, erumpent from the substrate, black when fresh, pulvinate, multiloculate, locules rectangular, numerous asci inside each locule. Peridium composed of large, thin-walled, black cells of textura angularis. Hymenium hyaline to grey. Asci bitunicate, 8-spored, cylindric–clavate, short pedicellate, rounded at the apex with a large apical chamber. Ascospores 1–2-seriate, hyaline, ellipsoid to ovate, smooth, thick-walled. Asexual morph: Conidiomata on MEA pycnidial, multiloculate, superficial, dark brown to black, globose, covered with hyphae; wall composed dark to light brown textura angularis. Conidiophores absent. Conidiogenous cells hyaline, holoblastic, smooth, cylindrical. Conidia aseptate, initially light brown, smooth-walled, ellipsoidal to subcylindrical, with rounded ends, becoming dark brown (black in mass). Spermatophores reduced to Spermatogenous cells, occurring intermingled among conidiogenous cells in same conidioma, subcylindrical, hyaline, smooth. Spermatia hyaline, smooth, granular, subcylindrical, straight or slightly curved. Chlamydospores brownish green, ellipsoidal to subcylindrical, becoming green (Adapted from Ekanayaka et al. 2016).

 

 Type species: Aplosporella chlorostroma Speg.

 

 Notes: Aplosporella was introduced by Spegazzini (1880) with A. chlorostroma as type species. Aplosporella is characterised by pulvinate, multiloculate ascostromata, hyaline to grey hymenium, cylindric–clavate, short pedicellate asci and 1–2-seriate, hyaline, ellipsoid to ovate, smooth, thick-walled ascospores. The asexual morph is characterised by dark brown to black, globose conidiomata, hyaline, holoblastic, smooth, cylindrical conidiogenous cells, septate, light brown to smooth-walled conidia, hyaline, smooth, granular, subcylindrical, straight or slightly curved spermatia and brownish green, ellipsoidal to subcylindrical chlamydospores. Several authors incorrectly mentioned Aplosporella as “Haplosporella” (Tilak and Rao 1964; Petrak and Sydow 1927; Tai 1979; Wei 1979). In the phylogenetic analysis of Slippers et al. (2013) based on SSU, LSU, ITS, TEF1, BTUB and mtSSU members of Aplosporella resided in a basal position with respect to other genera in the Botryosphaeriales and hence was accommodated in a new family Aplosporellaceae. Slippers et al. (2013) also synonymized Bagnisiella to Aplosporella and mentioned that the former genus represents the sexual morph of Aplosporella. Ekanayaka et al. (2016) added a new species A. thailandica to Aplosporella which resembles Bagnisiella.  The sexual morph of A. thailandica resembles Bagnisiella australis but differs in having ascospores with rounded ends (Ekanayaka et al. 2016). The asexual morph of A. thailandica is similar to Aplosporella artocarpi and A. prunicola but can be differentiated in the production of spermatia and chlamydospores in culture. Phillips et al. (2019) formally established Bagnisiella as a synonym of Aplosporella. Hyde et al. (2020) provided an updated phylogenetic tree of Aplosporella. Aplosporella is morphologically and phylogenetically a well-defined and type genus of Aplosporellaceae. Molecular markers of Aplosporella include SSU, LSU, ITS, TEF1, BTUB and mtSSU.

 

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