Melomastia Nitschke ex Sacc., Atti Soc. Veneto-Trent. Sci. Nat., Padova, Sér. 4 4: 90 (1875).
Saprobic on host. Sexual morph: Ascomata raised, immersed, globose, black; in vertical section obpyriform, with a central periphysate ostiolar canal. Peridium comprising several layers of brown to dark brown, compressed cells. Paraphyses filamentous, flexuose, numerous. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical, thick-walled, non fissitunicate, pedicellate, apically rounded, with a J-, subapical ring. Ascospores uniseriate, ovoid, hyaline, 2-septate, strongly constricted at the septa, with a lipid globule in each cell, surrounded by a gelatinous sheath. Asexual morph: Unknown (Adapted from Norphanphoun et al. 2017).
Type species: Melomastia friesii Nitschke
Notes: Melomastia was introduced by Saccardo (1875) with M. friesii as type species. Melomastia is characterized by raised, immersed, globose, black ascomata, cylindrical asci with a J- subapical ring, ovoid, hyaline, 2-septate ascospores surrounded by a gelatinous sheath. Schröter (1894) considered M. friesii as a synonym of M. mastoidea. The taxonomic placement of Melomastia has been controversial in recent years and treated differently by several authors (Barr 1989, 1994; Hawksworth et al. 1995; Kirk et al. 2008; Hu et al. 2010; Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2010). Barr (1989) referred Melomastia in Clypeosphaeriaceae. Barr (1994) later transferred Melomastia to Pleurotremataceae based on nonfissitunicate unitunicate ascus. Lumbsch and Huhndorf (2010), Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015, 2016) and Wijayawardene et al. (2017) treated Melomastia in Ascomycetes, genera incertae sedis. Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015) did not agree with this treatment and referred Melomastia to Sordariomycetes, genera incertae sedis and accepted only Pleurotrema, the type genus in Pleurotremataceae without detailed explanation. Norphanphoun et al. (2017) introduced Melomastia italica based on morphology namely ellipsoid, granular, 2-septate, hyaline and glistening ascospores, enclosed in a gelatinous sheath and phylogeny incorporating SSU and LSU sequence data and provided an account of Melomastia. Norphanphoun et al. (2017) reported that Melomastia does not belong to Sordariomycetes as initially reported by several authors but is a member of Dothideomycetes (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015; Hyde et al. 2016; Feng et al. 2017). Melomastia is morphologically and phylogenetically a distinct genus in Pleurotremataceae. Molecular markers available for Melomastia include LSU, SSU, ITS and TEF-1.