Abrothallales » Lichenoconiaceae » Abrothallus

Abrothallus bertianus

Abrothallus bertianus De Not., G. bot. ital. 2(1.1): 192 (1846).

           Index Fungorum number: IF 478577; Facesoffungi number: FoF11847, Fig. 1

Description: see Suija et al. (2018).

Material considered: see Suija et al. (2018).

Fig. 1 Abrothallus spp. (re-drawn from Fig. 1 in Suija et al. 2018). a Paraphyses of A. parmeliarum. b Mature ascus with mature ascospores. c Ascospore with one septum in A. bertianus. d Ascospore with three septa in A. suecicus. e Ascospores divided into two part-spores in A. secedens. f Surface view of pycnidia of A. bertianus on the thallus of Melanelixia fuliginosa. g Conidiospores of A. bertianus. Scale bars: ae = 5 μm, b, g = 10 μm, f = 100 μm.

Importance and distribution

Species of Abrothallus are lichenicolous and form obligate associations with lichens either as saprotrophs that inhabit dead lichen thalli, or parasites that acquire fixed carbon from living lichen hosts (Hawksworth 1982, Lawrey and Diederich 2003).


There are 68 Abrothallus epithets in Index Fungorum (2022), but several species have been transferred to Arthonia, Bachmanniomyces, Clypeococcum, Karschia, Micarea, Punctelia, Sclerococcum, Sphaerellothecium, Taeniolella and Tetramelas. Abrothallus is found on wide range of host such as Fraxinus sp. (Oleaceae), Parmelia sp. (Parmeliaceae), Platismatia glauca (Parmeliaceae), Ramalina calicaris (Ramalinaceae), Sticta sp. (Lobariaceae) and Usnea sp. (Parmeliaceae). Abrothallus is reported from Africa (Seychelles), Asia (Russia (Krasnoyarsk)), Australia (Tasmania), Europe (Canary Island, Germany, Luxembourg, Portugal, United Kingdom), South America (Colombia, Peru) and the United States (Florida, North Carolina). A revision of Abrothallus must be carried out as several species lack molecular data.



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De Notaris G. 1846 – Frammenti Lichenografici di un lavorno inedito. Giornale Botanico Italiano 1, 174–224.

De Notaris G. 1849 – Abrothallus novum lichenum genus. Memorie della Reale accademia delle scienze di Torino 10, 351–355.

Diederich P. 2004 – Abrothallus. In: Nash TH III, Ryan BD, Diederich P, Gries C, Bungartz F. (eds). Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region 2, Lichens Unlimited. Arizona State University, Tempe, pp 626–630.

Diederich P. 2011 – Description of Abrothallus parmotrematis sp. nov. (lichenicolous Ascomycota). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 112, 25–34.

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Hafellner J, Herzog G, Mayrhofer H. 2008 – Zur Diversität von lichenisierten und lichenicolen Pilzen in den Ennstaler Alpen (Österreich: Steiermark, Oberösterreich). Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark 137, 131–204.

Hawksworth DL, Dyko BJ. 1979 – Lichenodiplis and Vouauxiomyces: two new genera of lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Lichenologist 11, 51–61.

Hawksworth DL. 1982 – Secondary fungi in lichen symbioses, parasites, saprophytes and parasymbionts. The Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 52, 357–366.

Ihlen PG, Wedin M. 2008 – An annotated key to the lichenicolous Ascomycota (including mitosporic morphs) of Sweden. Nova Hedwig 86, 275–365.

Kotte I. 1909 – Einige neue Fälle von Nebensymbiose (Parasymbiose). Zentralblatt Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene Abteilung II, 24,74–93.

Lawrey J, Diederich P. 2003 – Lichenicolous Fungi: Interactions, Evolution, and Biodiversity. Bryologist 106, 80–120.

Lindsay WL. 1857 – Monograph of the genus Abrothallus (De Notaris and Tulasne emend.).  Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 5, 27–63.

Montagne C. 1851– Cryptogamia Guyanensis seu plantarum cellularium in Guyana gallica annis 1835-1849 a cl. leprieur collectarum enumeratio universalis. suite. Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique 16, 47–81

Pérez-Ortega S, Suija A, de los Ríos A. 2011– The connection between Abrothallus and its anamorph state Vouauxiomyces established by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Lichenologist 43, 277–279.

Sommerfelt SC. 1826 – Supplementum florae Lapponicae, quam editit Dr. Gg. Wahlenberg (in Latin). Christiania: Typis Borgianis et Gröndahlianis.

Suija A, De los Ríos A, Pérez-Ortega S. 2015 – A molecular reappraisal of Abrothallus species growing on lichens of the order Peltigerales. Phytotaxa 195, 201–226.

Suija A, Hawksworth DL, Pérez-Ortega S. 2018 – The generic name Abrothallus (Abrothallales, Dothideomycetes), and names proposed in the genus by Giuseppe De Notaris, Søren Christian Sommerfelt, and Ignaz Kotte. Taxon 67, 1169–1179. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26826806

Tulasne lR. 1852 – Mémoire pour servir à l’histoire organographique et physiologique des lichens. Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique 17, 5–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.58656


About Dothideomycetes

The website Dothideomycetes.org provides an up-to-date classification and account of all genera of the class Dothideomycetes.

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